What is a coronavirus?
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses known to cause diseases ranging from the common cold to more serious diseases such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
They are positive-stranded RNA viruses with a crown-like appearance under the electron microscope. The subfamily Orthocoronavirinae of the family Coronaviridae is further classified into four coronavirus (CoV) genera: Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Gammacoronavirus. The Betacoronavirus genus is further divided into five subgenera (including the Sarbecovirus)
Coronaviruses were identified in the mid-1960s and are known to infect humans and a variety of animals (including birds and mammals). Epithelial cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract are the primary target cells.
To date, seven coronaviruses have been shown to infect humans:
What is SARS-CoV-2? What is COVID-19?
Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the name given to the new 2019 coronavirus.
Where do coronaviruses come from?
Coronaviruses are viruses that circulate among animals and some of them also infect humans.
Bats are considered natural hosts of these viruses, but many other animal species are also considered as sources. For example, the Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is transmitted to humans by camels and the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-1 (SARS-CoV-1) is transmitted to humans by civets.
What does it mean when a virus mutates?
When a virus replicates or makes copies of itself, it sometimes changes slightly. These changes are called 'mutations'. A virus with one or more new mutations is referred to as a 'variant' of the original virus. Some mutations can lead to changes in the characteristics of a virus, such as altered transmission (e.g., it can spread more easily) or severity (e.g., it can cause a more severe disease).
So far, hundreds of variants of this virus have been identified worldwide. The WHO and its international network of experts constantly monitor the changes, so that if significant mutations are identified, the WHO can alert countries about any action that needs to be taken to prevent the spread of that variant.
What do we know about the variants of the SARS-CoV2 virus that are of most concern? Will the vaccine still be effective?
Three new variants are of major concern to WHO and ECDC experts:
Studies are underway to confirm the effectiveness of vaccines on these three main variants.
Is the new coronavirus comparable to seasonal flu?
No, viruses that cause both COVID-19 and seasonal influenza are transmitted from person to person and can cause similar symptoms, but the two viruses are vastly different and do not behave in the same way.
ECDC (the European Centre for Disease Control) estimates that between 15,000 and 75,000 people die prematurely each year in the EU, the UK, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein from complications of seasonal influenza. This is about 1 in 1,000 people infected. Although the seasonal flu mortality rate is relatively low, there are many people who die from the flu, because a large number of people contract the disease each year. Unlike influenza, there is no vaccine or specific treatment for COVID-19. Moreover, it seems to be more transmissible than seasonal influenza. Since it is a new virus, no one has developed any previous immunity, which means that the entire human population is potentially susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
What is SARS-Cov-2?
The virus that is causing the current coronavirus outbreak has been named ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2’ (SARS-CoV-2). This designation was communicated by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), virus taxa (i.e. species, genus, family, etc.). The name was given by a group of experts specially appointed to study the novel coronavirus. According to this pool of scientists, the novel coronavirus is a sister to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs); this is why it has been named SARS-CoV-2.
What is COVID-19?
The disease caused by the novel Coronavirus has been named ‘COVID-19’ (where "CO" stands for corona, "VI" for virus, "D" for disease and "19" indicates the year in which it occurred). This was announced on 11 February 2020 by the Director-General of the WHO, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.
Is the new virus the same as SARS?
No. The novel Coronavirus (now named SARS-CoV-2, formerly labelled 2019-nCoV) belongs to the same family of viruses as the Acute Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) virus, but it is not the same virus.
The novel Coronavirus, which is responsible for the respiratory disease now named COVID-19, is closely related to the SARS-CoV and is genetically classified in the genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus.
Why did the novel coronavirus appear?
The appearance of new viruses that originally only infected animals but then make the jump from animal to humans is a well-known phenomenon (‘spillover’), and this is what seems to have happened with the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, the scientific community is trying to identify the source of the infection.
Source: ISS - National Institute of Health
Is the source of the coronavirus causing COVID-19 known?
To date, the source of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, is unknown. Available evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 is of animal origin and is not a constructed virus. Most likely the ecological reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 resides in bats. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to a group of genetically related viruses, including SARS-CoV (the coronavirus causing SARS) and a number of other coronaviruses isolated from bat populations.
What are the symptoms of a person with Covid-19?
Symptoms of COVID-19 may vary, according to the severity of the disease, from no symptoms (being asymptomatic) to fever, cough, sore throat, weakness, fatigue, and muscle pain. More severe cases may involve pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome and other complications, all of which can be life-threatening.
Sudden loss of sense of smell (anosmia) or diminished sense of smell (hyposmia), loss of taste (ageusia) or taste alteration (dysgeusia) have been recognised as symptoms of COVID-19.
Other less specific symptoms may include headache, chills, myalgia, asthenia, vomiting and/or diarrhoea.
How dangerous is the new virus?
Preliminary data from the EU/EEA show that about 20-30% of cases of COVID-19 are hospitalised and 4% develop a severe form of the disease. Hospitalization rates are higher for people over 60 years of age and those with underlying diseases.
How long is the incubation period?
The incubation period is the time between infection and the onset of clinical symptoms of disease. It is currently estimated to range between 2 and 11 days, up to a maximum of 14 days.
Older people over 60 and those with pre-existing conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, cancer, and immunosuppressed patients (due to congenital or acquired disease, transplanted, or treated with immunosuppressive drugs) are more likely to develop severe forms of the disease. Men in these groups also appear to be at a slightly higher risk than women.
Children account for a small proportion of COVID-19 cases in the reported data. According to data from the European Surveillance System (TESSy) between August 1, 2020 and November 29, 2020, children aged 1-11 years and 12-18 years accounted for 5.5 and 7.4% of cases, respectively. Children appear to be as likely to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 as adults, with greater transmissibility in adolescents. However, children tend to have a much lower risk of developing serious symptoms or illnesses than adults.
The infectious period may start one or two days before symptoms appear, but people are likely to be more infectious during the symptomatic period, even if the symptoms are mild and very non-specific. It is estimated that the infectious period lasts 8-10 days in moderate cases, and on average up to two weeks in severe cases.
What are the recommendations for people most at risk?
All elderly people, or people suffering from one or more chronic diseases or with congenital or acquired immunosuppression are recommended not to leave their home or residence, unless strictly necessary, and to avoid crowded places, where it is not possible to maintain a safe interpersonal distance of at least one meter.
Can Coronaviruses and the novel Coronavirus be transmitted from person to person?
Yes, some Coronaviruses can be transmitted from person to person, usually after close contact with an infected patient, for example, between family members or in a healthcare centre.
The novel Coronavirus responsible for respiratory disease COVID-19 can also be transmitted from person to person through close contact with a probable or confirmed case.
SARS-CoV2 is mainly transmitted by droplets and aerosols from an infected person when they sneeze, cough, talk or breathe, and are in close proximity to other people.
The virus has also been isolated from the faeces of infected cases, indicating that faecal-oral transmission could also be a route of infection.
Droplets may be inhaled or may rest on surfaces, with which others come into contact and are then infected by touching their nose, mouth, or eyes. The virus can survive on surfaces for a few hours (copper, cardboard) to several days (plastic and stainless steel). However, the amount of viable virus decreases over time and may not always be present in sufficient quantity to cause infection.
The incubation period for COVID-19 (i.e., the time between exposure to the virus and the onset of symptoms) is currently estimated to be between one and 14 days.
It is known that the virus can be transmitted when infected persons show symptoms such as coughing. An infected person can also transmit the virus up to two days before symptoms occur; the extent to which such asymptomatic infections contribute to transmission is currently unclear.
Therefore, it is essential to wash hands properly and regularly with soap and water, or an alcohol-based product, and to clean surfaces frequently.
How else can the new coronavirus be transmitted?
Sick people can release infected droplets on objects and surfaces (called fomites) when they sneeze, cough or touch surfaces (tables, handles, handrails). By touching these objects or surfaces, other people can become infected by touching their eyes, nose, or mouth with contaminated (unwashed) hands.
Therefore, it is essential to wash your hands properly and regularly, with soap and water or an alcohol-based product and to clean surfaces frequently.
What do we know about the aerosol transmission?
Some medical procedures can produce exceedingly small droplet (called aerosolized droplet nuclei or aerosols), that are able to remain suspended in the air for a long time.
When such medical procedures are performed on COVID-19 positive people in healthcare facilities, these aerosols may contain SARS-CoV-2. Aerosol droplets may potentially be inhaled by other people if they are not wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Therefore, it is essential that all healthcare professionals performing these medical procedures take specific respiratory protection measures, including the use of appropriate personal protective equipment. No visitors should be allowed in areas where such medical procedures are performed.
What is the definition of close contact?
A "close contact" (high risk exposure) of a probable or confirmed case is defined as:
Healthcare professionals, based on individual risk assessments, may believe that some people, regardless of the duration and setting of the contact, have had a high-risk exposure.
When can infected people transmit the virus?
According to current knowledge, virus transmission mainly occurs from symptomatic people, but it can also occur shortly before the onset of symptoms, in case of proximity with other people for prolonged periods of time. People who never show symptoms can transmit the virus, even if it is not yet clear to what extent this occurs: further studies are needed.
To help break the transmission chain, it is necessary to limit contact with COVID-19 positive people, wash your hands frequently, stay at least 1 metre away from others and wear a mask.
How to manage a close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case?
Under the Ministerial Circulars and Orders, the local health authorities must place any close contacts of a probable or confirmed case under quarantine with active surveillance for 14 days.
Can the new Coronavirus infection be developed by a case that presents no symptoms (asymptomatic)?
Yes, infected people can transmit the virus, both when they show symptoms and when they are asymptomatic. That is why it is important that all positive people are identified through tests, isolated and, depending on the severity of their illness, receive medical treatment. Confirmed but asymptomatic people must also be isolated, to limit contact with others. These measures break the chain of the transmission of the virus.
This is the reason why it is always important to observe the prevention measures described above (physical distance, use of a mask, frequent hand washing).
What is the difference between asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic people: in both cases it does not mean that they are symptom-free?
Yes, both terms refer to people who have no symptoms. The difference is that 'asymptomatic' refers to people who are infected, but never develop symptoms, while 'pre-symptomatic' refers to infected people who have not yet developed symptoms but will develop them later.
This distinction is essential, in order for public health strategies to control transmission. Laboratory data suggest that people may be more infectious when they develop symptoms. Therefore, during investigation and contact tracing, it is recommended that public health professionals identify all individuals who have been or may have been in contact with a confirmed or probable COVID-19 case, focusing on the 48 hours before the onset of symptoms until the case is diagnosed and isolated.
Yes, COVID-19 is a new disease and more information is available every day, but there are still many aspects to be clarified:
Who is at greater risk of infection?
People who live or have travelled in areas at risk of novel coronavirus infection or people who have been in close contact with a confirmed or probable case of COVID-19.
The areas at risk of novel coronavirus infection are those where local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is present, as identified by the World Health Organization. The risk level in those areas is higher than in areas where only imported cases are present.
Can I be infected by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) by touching rails of handles on buses or in the metro or by being close to someone who is coughing? (ISS)
Since the virus can spread via contaminated surfaces, it is always a good practice in order to prevent respiratory and other infections to wash your hands frequently and thoroughly, after touching potentially contaminated objects and surfaces, and to avoid touching your face, eyes and mouth with unwashed hands.
Please remember that we are in the midst of the flu season. Therefore, if you experience symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, headache and, especially, breathing difficulties, you should consult your doctor. In any case, it is always a good practice in order to prevent respiratory and other infections to wash your hands frequently and thoroughly, after touching potentially contaminated objects and surfaces, and to avoid touching your face, eyes and mouth with unwashed hands.
Are health workers at risk from a novel coronavirus?
Yes, they can be, because they come into contact with patients more often than the general population. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that health workers follow appropriate prevention and control measures for infections in general and respiratory infections in particular.
When can a confirmed case of COVID-19 be declared recovered?
A COVID-19 patient can be considered cured after the resolution of symptoms (fever, rhinitis, cough, sore throat, difficulty breathing, pneumonia) and after two negative swab tests for SARS-CoV-2 performed 24 hours apart.
Can the new coronavirus be transmitted by mosquitoes?
How long does the novel Coronavirus survive on surfaces?
Currently available scientific evidence shows that the survival time of the virus on surfaces varies depending on the type of surface considered. The recent report of the Higher Institute of Health concerning the recommendations on the sanitization of non-healthcare facilities in the current COVID-19 emergency (surfaces, indoor environments and clothing) and the May 22, 2020 memo report the detection time of viral particles on the most common surfaces, varying from several hours (e.g. on paper) to several days (e.g. on plastic and stainless steel).
However, it must be considered that the data available so far, being generated by experimental conditions, must be interpreted with caution, also taking into account that the presence of viral RNA does not necessarily indicate that the virus is vital and potentially infectious.
The use of simple disinfectants can kill the virus by eliminating its ability to infect people, e.g. disinfectants containing alcohol (ethanol) or sodium hypochlorite (bleach).
Remember to clean frequently used items (mobile phone, earphones, microphone) first with soap and water or other neutral detergents and then disinfect them with products containing sodium hypochlorite (bleach) or ethanol (alcohol), following the manufacturer's instructions.
How does the novel Coronavirus spread?
The new coronavirus is a respiratory virus which spreads primarily through contact with the respiratory droplets of infected persons, generated when, for example, they cough or sneeze or blow their nose. It is therefore important that infected people practice respiratory hygiene measure. For example, sneeze or cough into a flexed elbow, or use a tissue and discard it immediately into a closed bin. It is also very important for people to wash their hands frequently with soap and water or a alcohol-based hand rub.
What is the difference between sanitation, disinfection, sanitization, and other cleaning procedure
Sanitization: it is a "series of cleaning and/or disinfection procedures and operations", which includes the maintenance of good air quality, changing the air frequently in all environments.
Disinfection: is a treatment to reduce the microbial load of environments, surfaces and materials and must be carried out using disinfectant products (biocides or medical and surgical devices) authorized by the Ministry of Health. These products must be labelled with the registration/authorisation number.
Hygiene: this is the equivalent of cleaning and is intended to make the environment hygienic, i.e. to clean the environment by eliminating the harmful substances present. Products without an authorisation from the Ministry of Health, which are labelled with indications on their activity, e.g. against germs and bacteria, are not products with a proven disinfectant activity but are simply environmental cleaners (sanitisers).
Cleansing: consists in the removal of dirt and microorganisms, with a subsequent reduction of the microbial load. Cleaning is mandatory before disinfection and sterilization because the dirt is rich in microorganisms that actively multiply in it and can reduce the activity of disinfectants.
Cleaning: cleaning is carried out using environmental cleaning/hygienising products - the two terms are equivalent - which remove dirt by mechanical or physical action.
Sterilization: physical or chemical process that leads to the targeted destruction of every living microbial form, both in vegetative and spore form.
Is it safe to receive packages from countries where COVID-19 has been reported?
Yes. The WHO has stated that the likelihood of an infected person contaminating commercial goods is low and the risk of catching the virus from a package that has been exposed to different conditions and temperature is also low.
Is it necessary to spray the streets with disinfectants (e.g. hypochlorite)?
There is no evidence that walking surfaces are involved in transmission of the virus. Moreover, spraying hypochlorite could increase the amount of harmful substances in the environment. Street cleaning with conventional soaps/detergents is still advised.
Is there a risk of COVID-19 infection from animals?
While available data, in particular genetic sequences, suggest that the SARSCoV-2 virus emerged from an animal source, there is currently not enough scientific evidence to identify precisely either the source or the route of transmission from the original animal reservoir to a putative intermediate host and then to humans. Studies are underway to better understand the susceptibility of different animal species to SARS-CoV-2 and to assess infection dynamics in susceptible animal species.
Source: European Commission
Is there a risk of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from humans to animals or between animals?
During the pandemic, positive SARS CoV-2 status in both bred and domestic animals was reported in several countries. Epidemiological evidence shows that felines (domestic and wild cats), minks and dogs tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, following contact with people infected with Covid19. Some cats showed clinical signs of disease. However, felines or dogs do not appear to play a role in the spread of the disease.
Minks area separate case, as not only has the SARS CoV-2 virus has been shown to be transmitted from humans to minks, but there has also been evidence that minks also have the ability to retransmit the virus to farm workers. This phenomenon has been observed in the Netherlands, and particularly in Denmark, where minks affected by SARS COV-2 have not only retransmitted the disease to farm workers, but the viruses have been found to be genetically mutated from those that were initially isolated.
Can I get infected from my pet?
There is no evidence that pets play a role in the spread of SARS-CoV-2, as it has been proved that interhuman infection is the main route of transmission.
However, since veterinary surveillance and experimental studies suggest that pets are occasionally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, it is important to protect pets living with patients with COVID-19 by limiting their exposure. It is recommended to wash hands frequently with soap and water or using alcoholic solutions before and after contact with pet, their litter or food bowl.
Should I take any special precaution with my pet?
First and foremost there is no justification for any measures to be taken which may in any way compromise the welfare of the animals in your care. Despite there is no current scientific evidence of dogs or cats or any other pet species playing a role in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and that animals infected by humans are not playing a role in the epidemiology of COVID19, a precautionary attitude and behaviour is recommended whenever possible. There are certain protective steps that can be taken:
Source: European Commission
Is there a risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 via pet food or animal feed? What about the packaging?
As for human food, there has been no report of transmission of SARS-CoV2 virus to animals via consumption of pet food. The European Food Safety Authority concluded that “there is no evidence that food is a likely source or route of transmission of the virus” .
Indeed, as for food for human consumption, there is no scientific evidence and it appears very unlikely that you can become infected from handling pet food. The recommendations regarding the handling of pet food packages are the same as for the handling of any other package. This assessment is also valid for feed for farmed animals.
Are any animals or animal products imported from China?
Due to the presence of some contagious animal diseases in China, only a few live animals and unprocessed animal products from China are authorised for import into the European Union.
There is no evidence that any of the animals or animal products authorised for entry into the European Union pose a risk to the health of EU citizens as a result of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in China.
Is it possible to import food products from China?
As with the imports of animals and animal products, due to the animal health situation in China, only a few products of animal origin are authorised for import into the EU from China, on the condition that they meet strict health requirements and have been subjected to controls.
For the same reasons, travellers entering the EU customs territory are not allowed to carry any meat, meat products, milk or dairy products in their luggage.
What should I do when I return from a walk with my dog
When returning from walks, to protect our pet friend, it is advisable to take care of their hygiene, taking special care to wipe their paws, avoiding aggressive and alcohol - based products that could cause any irritations or itching, and preferring to use products without added fragrance (e.g. water and mild soap).
As far as their fur coat is concerned, it is advisable to br ush them and then wipe them with a damp cloth.
If my pet is sick, where do I ask for assistance?
Veterinary assistance is one of the essential services provided for in the recent legislation. Please contact your vet, who will tell you what steps you need to take to take your pet to a clinic.
Do I need to change my pet’s diet?
It is recommended not to change your pet’s the diet. However, you could slightly decrease its daily intake, considering that during this period outdoor activity is reduced
What can I do to protect myself?
Please stay up to date with the latest information on the spread of the pandemic, available on the WHO website and on the Italian Ministry of Health website and take the following personal protection measures:
If you have a fever, cough or experience any breathing difficulties and you suspect that you have been in close contact with a person with respiratory disease Covid-19:
Where do I find information on the correct behaviour and the procedure to follow in case I have come into contact with positive people?
You can call 1500, the free toll public utility number of the Ministry of Health, or the Italian Red Cross toll-free number 800.065.510, which has been specifically activated to assist the most vulnerable population. The operators also answer for information on the correct behaviour to be respected and the procedure to follow in case of close contact with positive people. Requests include the intervention of doctors for initial telephone assistance and the activation of hospital facilities.
You can also contact the toll-free number for your region: Regional toll-free numbers
The purpose of hand washing is to ensure proper hand cleansing and hygiene through mechanical action.
Common soap is sufficient for hand hygiene. In the absence of water, so-called alcohol-based hand sanitizers can be used.
If soap is used, it is important to rub your hands for at least 60 seconds. If soap is not available, use a hydroalcoholic solution for at least 20-30 seconds.
Commercially available products for hand sanitization in the absence of soap and water (medical and surgical devices and authorised biocides with microbicidal action) should be used when the hands are dry, otherwise they are not effective.
It is important to wash your hands:
Before and after
It is also a good practice to cough/sneeze in your elbow crease to avoid contaminating your hands, with which you can subsequently transmit your microorganisms (e.g. by touching your mobile phone, door handle, etc.).
Finally, it is recommended to use disposable tissues to blow your nose, (possibly eco-friendly tissues), and to dispose of them in the waste, washing your hands, immediately after use.
Am I protected from COVID-19 if I got a flu shot this year?
Influenza and the virus that causes COVID-19 are two different viruses and the seasonal flu vaccine does not protect from COVID-19. However, the flu vaccine is strongly recommended because it helps to avoid confusion with COVID-19 if you develop symptoms, enabling earlier isolation of possible coronavirus cases.
Is Tuberculosis vaccine (TB) protective against COVID-19?
Since at present there is no scientific evidence that TB vaccine can provide protection against the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), this vaccine remains indicated for vulnerable categories of the population exposed to these infections.
Can antibiotics be useful to prevent infection with novel coronavirus?
No, antibiotics do not work against viruses, they only work on bacterial infections.
Is it necessary to continue with the normal vaccination activities envisaged in the general vaccination schedule?
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF, it is essential to maintain the normal vaccination schedule, especially for routine vaccinations. During vaccination appointments, it is recommended to observe the preventive measures for COVID-19.
In this regard, on 30 July 2020, the Ministry of Health issued the circular:
Can the virus be transmitted via food?
Normally, respiratory diseases cannot be passed on through food. However, safe food hygiene practices should be followed, and contact between raw and cooked food should be avoided.
It is safe to drink tap water, thanks to treatment processes that remove viruses, environmental conditions that compromise virus vitality (temperature, sunlight, high pH levels) and the final disinfection step.
Source: ISS - National Institute of Health
When should I wear a mask?
It is always mandatory to carry a face mask with you.
These must be worn not only in closed spaces accessible to the public, as in the past, but more generally in indoor spaces other than private homes, and in all outdoor spaces. Exceptions are made in cases where, due to the characteristics of the place or the circumstances of fact, the condition of isolation from non-residents is continuously guaranteed. This is without prejudice to the anti-contagion protocols and guidelines provided for any business, productive, administrative, and social activities. In the workplace, therefore, the current safety rules continue to apply, without prejudice to the guidelines for the consumption of food and drink. Children under six years of age, people with pathologies or disabilities that are not compatible with the use of a mask, and those who interact with the latter, are excluded from these obligations. Wearing a mask will not be compulsory when performing sports activities.
The use of a face mask is also strongly recommended in private homes, if there are non-residents visiting.
Within our communities, disposable masks or washable masks may be used, even if they are self-made. The masks should be made of multilayer materials providing an appropriate barrier and guarantee comfort and breathability at the same time. The shape and adherence of a mask should ensure proper coverage, from the chin all the way to above the nose.
The use of community masks is considered an addition to other protective measures aimed at reducing contagion (such as physical distancing and constant and accurate hand hygiene), which remain unchanged and an absolute priority.
It is not useful to wear multiple overlapping surgical masks. A sensible use of surgical masks is important to avoid unnecessary waste of valuable resources.
Before you put the mask on:
When you are using your mask
When you remove your mask
In case of reusable masks
How should I put on and take off the mask?
Follow these steps:
What are the recommendations for people in solitary confinement?
These are just some of the many recommendations extracted from a document drafted by the Italian Higher Institute of Health . These guidelines are summed up in a 21 points downloadable poster.
Is there a treatment for the novel coronavirus?
At present, there is no specific treatment for the disease caused by the new coronavirus.
Treatment remains mainly based on a symptomatic approach, providing supportive therapies (e.g. oxygen therapy, fluid management) to infected people, which can nevertheless be highly effective.
Several clinical trials are underway for the treatment of COVID-19 disease. The Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) provides information on its website about the drugs that are made available to COVID-19 patients.
See the dedicated page on the site: Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA)
What needs to be done at the end of the quarantine, to return to work?
At the end of the quarantine period, if no symptoms have appeared, anyone can return to work, and their period of absence will be justified by the relevant medical certificate.
Should anyone develop further symptoms during the quarantine period, the Public Health Department in charge of health surveillance will carry out a swab test for SARS-CoV-2. If the swab test is positive, a molecular test should be carried out, after at least three days without symptoms. If the molecular test is negative, the person can return to work, otherwise the isolation period will continue.
What are the recommendations for family members caring for people in home isolation under suspicion of or confirmed COVID-19?
Can high-blood pressure medications with ACE inhibitors or sartans or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. ibuprofen) worsen COVID-19?
There is no scientific evidence of any correlation between the use of ibuprofen or antihypertensive drugs and worsening of the COVID-19 disease. Therefore, on the basis of current knowledge, there is no recommendation to change your current treatment.
There are psychological support initiatives for people in this time of stress related to the COVID - 19 pandemic
Since April 27th, the psychological support toll-free number 800.833.833, set up by the Ministry of Health and the Civil Protection, is active.
The number, which is active every day from 8AM to midnight, can also be reached from abroad dialling +39.02.20228733. Access to this service is also guaranteed to hearing impaired citizens.
To learn more, go to the page Psychological Support Free-toll Number on the New Coronavirus themed site of the Ministry of Health.
Is the mask also mandatory for children?
What is the difference between the so-called community masks and surgical masks?
Surgical masks are specifically intended for medical use, developed for use in a healthcare environment and certified according to their filtering capacity.
They respond to the characteristics required by UNI EN ISO 14683-2019 and prevent the transmission of the virus.
Community masks, as described in article 16, paragraph 2, of the Decree-Law DL March 17 2020, have the purpose of reducing the circulation of the virus in daily life and are not subject to any specific certifications.
They should not be considered either medical devices or personal protective equipment, but merely a hygienic measure to reduce the spread of SARS-COV-2 virus.
It is possible to wash community masks, if they are made of materials that resist washing at 60 degrees. Commercial community masks are considered disposable or washable, according to the relevant instructions provided on the packaging. These may also include the number of washes allowed without diminishing their performance
These masks must:
The use of gloves within the community only adds to the other protective measures aimed at reducing contagion, which remain a priority.
However, the use of disposable gloves remains recommended in purchasing activities, particularly for the purchase of food and beverages.
The use of gloves, similarly to the use of masks, may help preventing infections only under certain conditions. Otherwise, such protective devices may become a vehicle of infection themselves.
Gloves are ok if:
How should masks, gloves and other waste be disposed of, if there are positive or quarantined people in the house?
In households where there are family members who have been tested positive, in isolation or compulsory quarantine, separate waste collection must be discontinued.
Any household waste, regardless of its nature (including tissues, toilet/kitchen rolls, disposable sheets, masks and gloves), must be considered as undifferentiated waste and therefore disposed of in the container used for undifferentiated collection (if possible, with foot pedal), taking care to place the waste inside at least two sealed resistant bags (one inside the other) first, to avoid contact with sanitation workers.
On the other hand, in households where there are no positive subjects in isolation or in compulsory quarantine, it is recommended to continue respecting the waste procedures required by the local territory, without interrupting the separate waste collection.
However, as a precautionary measure, any used tissues, masks, and gloves should be disposed of in the undifferentiated waste.
The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italian Higher Institute for Health Care) has issued a document concerning the PPE and medical devices recommended for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the workplace (health care workers, cleaners, laboratory technicians, patients with/without symptoms, accompanying persons, ambulance workers, etc.) and recipients of the guidelines.
Read the document
What preventive measures have been introduced at national level for this virus in relation to donors of blood, organs and tissues?
The National Blood Centre and the National Transplant Centre have established specific measures to suspend temporarily acceptance of donors coming from affected areas.
I am a blood donor. What should I do?
Remember that you can only donate blood if you are in good health; even a simple cold or sore throat, without any connection to the Coronavirus, would cause temporary exclusion.
If you think you have been exposed to the risk of coronavirus infection, wait at least three weeks before donating blood.
When you go to give blood, always inform the interviewing doctor of any recent travel, especially if in one of the areas affected by the novel Coronavirus.
Also inform the doctor if you have been diagnosed with the infection or if you have had symptoms associated with those caused by the Coronavirus (fever, cough, breathing difficulties) even when the symptoms have already been resolved, on their own or following treatment. The interviewing doctor will examine you and may decide to disqualify you temporarily from donating blood.
If you have already donated blood, remember to contact the Blood Transfusion Service if you develop symptoms similar to those caused by the Coronavirus.
Are pregnant women more susceptible to infection or at increased risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19?
There are no scientific reports on the susceptibility of pregnant women to the virus. Pregnancy involves changes in the immune system which may increase the risk of viral respiratory infections, including SARS-CoV-2. Pregnant women might also be at higher risk of developing a severe form of viral respiratory infections.
The advice for pregnant women is to take normal preventive actions to reduce the risk of infection, such as washing hands often and avoiding contact with people who are sick.
What are the effects of COVID-19 during pregnancy?
There are no scientific reports about the effects of COVID-19 during pregnancy. In cases of infection during pregnancy with other related coronaviruses [SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV], cases of miscarriage have been observed, while high fevers during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of birth defects.
Can pregnant women with COVID-19 pass the virus to their fetus or new-born?
Although evidence is still scarce, vertical transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus cannot be excluded. To date, it is considered a rare but possible event. In Italy there are several cases of positivity among infants, presumably infected following contact with a positive mother during or after birth. It has been observed that these infants do not show major symptoms and this condition is not of particular concern.
Do pregnan t women with COVID - 19 need to have a Caesarean section?
Pregnant women who are positive for the new coronavirus do not necessarily have to have a caesarean section. Based on current knowledge, there is no elective indication for a caesarean section in women who are positive for the new coronavirus and the current indications for caesarean section remain valid.
Can women who test positive for the new coronavirus have contact with their newborn immediately after birth?
Whenever possible, the preferred option is the joint management of mother and newborn to facilitate the interaction and initiation of breastfeeding.
Should the mother be asymptomatic and feel able to manage her newborn independently, mother and newborn can be managed together. In this case, rooming - in for mother and infant is applicable, applying normal precautions for airborne respiratory diseases. If the mother has a frankly symptomatic respiratory infection (fever, cough and respiratory secretions, myalgia, sore throat, asthenia, dyspnoea ), mother and newborn are temporarily separated.
The decision whether or not to separate mother and newborn should be taken for each individual couple, taking into account the information and consent of parents, the logistical situation of the hospital and possibly also the local epidemiological situation regarding the spread of SARS - CoV - 2.
Can women who tested positive for the new coronavirus breastfeed their baby?
If the mother is asymptomatic, she can breastfeed, taking all possible precautions to avoid transmitting the virus to her baby, washing her hands and wearing a surgical mask while breastfeeding.
If breast milk squeezed with manual or electric breast pump is used, the mother should wash her hands and follow the recommendations for proper cle aning of the instruments after each use. If possible, consider using donated human milk.
If the mother has a frankly symptomatic respiratory infection (fever, cough and respiratory secretions, myalgia, sore throat, asthenia, dyspnoea), mother and newborn s hould be transiently separated. In this case, the automatic use of breastmilk substitutes should be avoided, by implementing the pumping of breastmilk or the use of donated human milk. In cases of severe maternal infection, breastmilk pumping may not be ca rried out, according to the general condition of the mother. The compatibility of breastfeeding with drugs that may be administered to the woman with COVID - 19 should be assessed on a case - by - case basis. The use of positive SARS - CoV - 2 mother's pumped breas t milk for the newborn in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit follows specifics protocols.
What containment measures are planned in Italy?
Regions and Autonomous Provinces are classified into four areas, according to the data and indications of the Control Room/Cabina di Regia (DM April 30, 2020). Each area corresponds to different epidemiological risk scenarios and levels, according to the document "Prevention and response to COVID-19; evolution of the strategy and planning in the transition phase for the autumn-winter period", and the restrictions of the last decree - Dpcm:
The classification of the Regions into areas is established by Ordinance of the Minister of Health, after consulting the Presidents of the Regions concerned.
COVID-19 Green Certificate
The COVID-19 Green Certificate, the free document in digital and printable format that makes it easier to attend public events in Italy (such as fairs, concerts, sports competitions, and festivities during religious or civil ceremonies), to access nursing homes and to move in and out of areas that may be classified as 'red zone' or 'orange zone', is now available in Italy.
From 1 July, the COVID-19 Green Certificate will be valid as an EU digital COVID certificate and will make it easier to travel to and from all EU and Schengen countries.
See details of restrictions and reopening on the Government website
What containment measures apply to the Regions included in the yellow risk area?
What containment measures apply to the Regions included in the orange risk area?
What containment measures apply to the Regions included in the red risk area?
In all the Regions included in the yellow area, the following containment measures are in force until January 15, as set out in the Decree-Law January 5, 2021:
Masks are not mandatory in the following cases:
people taking part in sporting activities
children under six years of age
people with pathologies or disabilities that are incompatible with the use of a mask, and those who have the same incompatibility when interacting with them
It is also advised that all citizens respect simple preventive recommendations.
What are the main measures enacted to cope with the autumn-winter season?
With the start of the autumn-winter season, Italy, like other European countries, is facing a worsening of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. The Ministry of Health has prepared, in collaboration with the Higher Institute of Health, the Coordination of Regions and Autonomous Provinces and others, the document Prevention and Response to Covid-19: evolution of strategy and planning in the transition phase for the autumn-winter season, which outlines phases, scenarios and related interventions.
The document is addressed to public health authorities involved in the response to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in our country.
What is recommended to travellers?
Travelling to and from abroad
To learn about the information for travelling to and from abroad, please visit the:
From 1 July, the COVID-19 Green Certificate will be valid as an EU digital COVID certificate and will make it easier to travel to and from all EU and Schengen countries. For all information, go to the website www.dgc.gov.it or call the Immuni App toll-free number (+39) 800.91.24.91, available daily from 8 am to 8 pm.
Useful numbers from the Ministry of Health
For further information please refer to:
What precautions are advised if I have to travel?
Travellers must follow strict hygiene measures, wash their hands with soap and water regularly and/or use alcohol-based hand disinfectants. Avoid touching your face with unwashed hands, avoid contact with sick people, especially those with respiratory symptoms and fever.
It should be emphasised that older people and people with chronic basic illnesses must take these precautionary measures very seriously.
Travellers who develop symptoms during or after the trip must self-isolate; those who develop acute respiratory symptoms within 14 days after their return to Italy must immediately contact their doctor by telephone.
What happens if a passenger is COVID-19 positive? What is contact tracing?
The Ministry of Health has the task of tracing all the close contacts of a Covid-19 case present on a means of transport (air, train, ferry), collecting the data and transmitting them to the Regions, to activate the quarantine measure.
Contact tracing-(CT) consists in making a timely and accurate search of all persons (close contacts) who may have been exposed to the COVID-19 case during the period of infection, and who could in turn develop the infection, become contagious and thus fuel the transmission. The CT is a key public health tool to break the transmission chains of Covid-19 cases.
If a close contact has returned to his/her home country, what are the actions envisaged by the Ministry of Health?
The Ministry will send a report via Early Warning and Response System of the European Union (EWRS). The EWRS is a web-based platform with restricted access, that allows EU countries to report events with a potential impact on the EU at an early stage, share information and coordinate their response.
For non-EU countries, a report is sent via National Focal Point (NFP).
Similarly, EWRS and National Focal Points receive reports of contacts to our country, which are forwarded to the Regions.
Who should I contact if I have flu symptoms or think I am at risk for infection?
If you have flu symptoms or think you might be at risk of infection, stay at home, do not go to the emergency room or the doctor's surgery but call your family doctor, paediatrician or the ‘guardia medica’ (out-of-hours primary care service). Alternatively, call the regional information hotline.
Find out more:
The ministerial decree- Dpcm of November 3, 2020, introduces different measures to contain the Sars-CoV-2 epidemic, according to the level of risk of the different Italian territories and regions. The most restrictive measures are concentrated in the area reserved for the Regions at maximum risk, the so-called red zone; in the area for the Regions considered at high risk, the so-called orange zone, there are slightly less restrictive measures; in the third area, the so-called yellow zone, including the remaining Regions, less restrictive measures are applied.
Concerning people movement on the territory, the measures of the Decree-Dpcm are as follows:
Regions included in the yellow zone:
Regions included in the orange area:
Regions included in the red area:
For further information, it is advisable to contact the regional emergency COVID-19 toll free number for the specific Region of interest, also regarding the possible need, in case of home return, to carry out a quarantine or fiduciary isolation.
Which activies and services are open?
From June 12
From June 15
From June 25
Where can I find more information about the novel Coronavirus?
The Ministry of Health has set up dedicated website: www.salute.gov.it/nuovocoronavirus
The Regions have activated local helpsline to handle the many requests for information and advice.
Find out more on Ministry's website:
You can find specific information for schools, universities and art and music colleges in the dedicated page of the Ministry of University and Research and the Ministry of Education.
Go to the Civil Protection website
If you are planning to travel abroad, you will find useful information on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ travel advice website Viaggiare sicuri.
More information is available on the Epicentro website of the National Institute of Health (ISS).
What is Immuni?
Immuni is an app that helps us fight epidemics—starting with COVID-19:
All the relevant information about the functioning of the system is available on the:
Support is available from a toll-free number, 800 91 24 91, from 8am to 20pm.
What is meant by quarantine, active surveillance and isolation? What are the differences?
Quarantine and isolation are important public health measures implemented to avoid further secondary cases due to SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and to avoid overloading the hospital system.
When entry into Italy is not allowed
Entry in our country will not be allowed for the following reasons:
Until June 2, whoever intends to enter Italy by air, sea, lake, rail or land transport or by private means, is required, for the purpose of access to the service, to deliver to the carrier a detailed and clear certification upon boarding, in order to allow verification by carriers or shipowners, to:
All travellers entering Italy, even if asymptomatic, are obliged to immediately notify the Prevention Department of the competent territorial health service and are subject to health surveillance and fiduciary isolation for a period of fourteen days at the home or residence stated at the time of boarding.
In the event of the onset of COVID-19 symptoms, travellers are obliged to report this situation promptly to the Health Authority via the dedicated telephone numbers.
Obligations for carriers and shipowners
Carriers and shipowners shall obtain and verify the documentation required from travellers before boarding, taking care to take temperature measurements of individual passengers and forbidding boarding in case of fever, as well as because of incomplete documentation.
Carriers and shipowners are also required to adopt any necessary measures to ensure at all times an interpersonal distance of at least one meter between passengers during the journey, and to promote the use of individual means of protection by the crew and passengers, providing clear directions concerning any situations in which such protections may be temporarily removed. Air carriers shall ensure that all passengers without protection are provided with personal protective equipment upon boarding.
The above provisions shall not apply to:
Are foreign nationals required to observe the same travel limitations as Italian citizens?
Yes, the restrictions to travel and movement apply to all persons in or entering/exiting Italy, regardless of their nationality.
What are the WHO’s recommendations for countries?
The WHO encourages all countries to strengthen preventive measures, active surveillance, early detection of cases, their isolation following appropriate management and containment procedures, and accurate contact tracing to prevent further spread.
Countries are asked to continue to improve their preparedness for health emergencies in line with International Health Regulations (2005) and to share information on cases and on the measures they implement.
Where are the COVID-19 cases happening?
On March 11th, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the international outbreak of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection can be considered a pandemic.
The epidemiological situation is constantly evolving. Every day the WHO publishes the epidemiological update of the disease on the page Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports.
Learn more about the New Coronavirus on the following website pages:
Can I get a prescription from my doctor by email or cell phone message?
Yes. By Order of 19 March 2020, you can now get the ‘Electronic Prescription Number’ from your doctor without having to pick up a paper prescription. This is a further measure to reduce the movement of people and stop the spread of the novel coronavirus infection.
Your doctor may:
After receiving the Electronic Prescription Number and the tax identification number on your health card, the pharmacist will supply you with the medication.
With the introduction of national restrictive measures, have the activities of anti-violence centres for women been suspended?
No, the anti-violence centres remain open and accessible without restrictions.
Women who are victims of violence and stalking can:
Download the infographics.
I Am deaf, where can I ask for information?
You can write an email to email@example.com. You will be answered by doctors ready to give you the explanations and help you need.
Where can I find information on measures for citizens with disabilities?
The Presidency of the Council of Ministers and the Ministry of Health publish all updates regarding the new Coronavirus on the website: www.salute.gov.it/nuovocoronavirus.
The Office for Policies in Favour of Citizens with Disabilities publishes specific updates relating to regulations applying to citizens with disabilities on the following website:
New Coronavirus: Frequently Asked Questions for Citizens with Disabilities
In addition to answers to the most frequently asked questions about the measures taken by the Government for people with disabilities and their families, the website also contains the Ministry of Health's vademecum in an accessible format.
The announcements of the Civil Protection Department are available, also in LIS (Italian Sign Language) version, on the YouTube Department channel.
Extracts of the announcements are available, in writing, on the Department website.
I would like to make a donation to give my contribution during this national emergency, how can I donate?
The Civil Protection website has opened a bank account dedicated to the New Coronavirus emergency.
You will find the relevant information on the page: Coronavirus Emergency: the current account to make your donation is now active
You may also make a donation to the financial support fund dedicated to the families of deceased health care workers because of the Covid-19 emergency. This fund has been set up by the Civil Protection. Donations can be made by bank transfer, both from Italy and abroad.
For further information:
What monitoring device has been introduced for this virus nationwide?
For the management of Phase 2, a specific monitoring system on epidemiological data and response capacity of regional health services has been activated, introduced with the decree of the Ministry of Health of April 30, 2020. The monitoring is developed by a “control booth” consisting of the Ministry of Health, the Higher Institute of Health and the Regions.
In Italy, specific surveillance for this virus is also active at national level since the beginning of the epidemic.
The situation is constantly monitored by the Ministry, which is in permanent contact with the WHO, the ECDC, the European Commission and promptly publishes any new updates on the portal www.salute.gov.it/nuovocoronavirus.
In view of the WHO's declaration of an "International Public Health Emergency", the Council of Ministers declared a state of emergency on January 31, 2020, because of the health risk associated with Coronavirus infection.
Which document defines scenarios and response measures based on the evolution of the pandemic in Italy?
The Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the Italian National Institute of Health, the Coordination of Regions and Autonomous provinces and others, prepared the document Prevention and response to Covid-19: strategy development and planning in the transition phase for the autumn-winter period, which outlines phases, scenarios and related interventions.
The document is addressed to public health authorities involved in the response to the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in our country.
What do the R0 and Rt values indicate?
The R0 value (reads R with zero), i.e. the "basic reproduction number", indicates the average number of infections directly caused by each infected individual, at the beginning of the epidemic and in the absence of containment measures. If R0 is 2 it means that on average each infected person will infect two people, if it is 3 it will infect 3, each of which will infect the same number of people.
The higher the R0 value, the higher the risk of spreading the virus.
If R0 is less than 1 (i.e. each infected person will infect less than one), it means that the infection will tend to die out naturally, because the number of infected people will gradually decrease.
Rt (reads R with t) is the expression of the same index at a given time of the epidemic, depending on the containment measures undertaken.
The closer Rt is to zero, the faster the infection is eliminated in the population.
Rt makes it possible to measure the effectiveness of any prevention and restriction measures adopted to limit and contrast the spread of the disease.
What does it mean that those who have been in contact with SARS-CoV-2 positive people in the previous days are not allowed to attend a religious service?
"Contact" is to be understood as "close contact" with a probable or confirmed case, as defined by the Circular of the Ministry of Health of March 9, 2020, namely:
I am a health care worker working in a COVID-19 department. Can I attend religious services?
Yes, access to a place of worship is permitted, as long as appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) has always been used during the healthcare activity provided.
Are children also at risk of infection and what is their potential role in transmitting the virus?
What can parents do to protect their children from infection?
You may encourage your children to help stop the spread of COVID - 19 by teaching them the rules of hygiene and infection prevention:
What can parents do to promote physical activity?
During this emergency phase, characterized by extended time to spend at home, it is particularly important to offer children some activities and movement games. Physical exercise, intended as a game of movement, has a priority role for health in the develo pmental age and, in addition to being fun, it helps to improve physical health conditions and promote psychological well - being, functional to achieving a healthy growth. At this time, movement games, more or less structured, to be played together at home, can therefore be very useful to deal with this particular situation with in a more relaxed way: such activities can in fact help children and young people to elaborate emotions and experiences that are sometimes difficult to express, as in playtime childr en have an opportunity to express their emotions, moods and experiences, both pleasant and unpleasant.
To promote physical activity parents may:
Please refer to the website of the Italian Higher Institute for health, where you will find more information for the different age groups:
The goal of the vaccination campaign on the population is to prevent deaths from COVID-19 and to achieve herd immunity for SARS-CoV2 as soon as possible. In Italy, the campaign started on December 27 in a demonstrative form, followed by Europe with the Vaccine Day and then effectively on December 31, 2020, after the approval by the EMA (European Medicines Agency) of the first anti COVID-19 vaccine. After an initial phase, which will be limited in terms of the number of doses delivered, the campaign will develop consistently, according to the Strategic Plan approved by the Italian Parliament on December 2, 2020. The vaccines will be offered free of charge to the entire population, according to an order of priority, taking into account the risk of disease, the types of vaccine and their availability.
Which vaccines have been authorised in Italy?
Under the agreements signed, Italy can count on the availability of more than 224 million doses.
The first vaccine to be authorised in the European Union was Pfizer-BioNtech's Comirnaty: on 21 December 2020 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and on 22 December by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA).
The Moderna vaccine was also authorised by the EMA on 6 January and by AIFA on 7 January.
The AstraZeneca vaccine was also authorised by the EMA on 29 January and by the AIFA on 30 January.
Since December 31, 2020, a dashboard to collect data and statistics on the administration of the vaccine throughout the country has been activated.
What are the priority categories in the early stages?
I am not included into the categories of people who are eligible for the vaccine in the early stages, when will I also be able to get the vaccine?
After vaccinating health and social care workers, staff, and residents of residential facilities for the elderly, the vaccination campaign will continue with the population over 80 years of age. Next, extremely vulnerable people, i.e., those with diseases or disabilities that present a particularly high risk of developing severe or fatal forms of COVID-19, will be vaccinated. They will be followed by people aged 70-79 and people with at least one chronic comorbidity.
With the arrival of new vaccines and the increase in the number of doses currently available, people aged between 18 and 55 will also be vaccinated, starting with teachers and school staff, the armed forces and the police forces, prison staff and inmates, community places and other essential services.
The categories of people and the order of priority for the vaccination campaign have been updated by the document Interim recommendations on target groups for the anti-SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 vaccination.
What do we know about the SARS-CoV2 virus variants of greatest concern?
Three new variants are of most concern to WHO and ECDC experts:
How widespread are the variants of the virus in our country?
The variant emerged in the United Kingdom (the so-called "English variant") is becoming prevalent in our country. According to the data of the second variant prevalence survey conducted by the Institute of Health, with the support of the Foundation Bruno Kessler and in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces, the prevalence of the "English variant" of the Sars-CoV-2 virus (variant VOC 202012/01, also known as B.1 .1.7) was 54.0%, ranging from 0% to 93.3% for individual regions, while the prevalence of the "Brazilian" (P.1 variant) was 4.3% (0%-36.2%) and the "South African" (501Y.V2 variant) was 0.4% (0%-2.9%).
Are vaccines effective against variants of the new coronavirus?
What measures has our country taken to combat the spread of variants?
The emergence of new variants reinforces the importance for everyone, including those who have been infected or vaccinated, to adhere strictly to health and socio-behavioural control measures (use of face masks, physical distance, and hand hygiene).
In order to limit the spread of new variants, Italy has set out specific public health actions:
To find out more about travel restrictions
Which vaccines will arrive in Italy and when?
Timelines and figures may be subject to change depending on the authorisation and dose allocation processes. Italy, according to the signed agreements, can count on the availability of 215 million doses.
The first vaccine to be authorised in the European Union was Pfizer-BioNtech's Comirnaty, on December 21. Vaccinations with Comirnaty started on Vaccine Day, on December 27, in Italy and Europe.
On January 6, the EMA (European Medicines Agency) also authorised the Moderna vaccine, which was authorised by AIFA (Italian Medicines Agency) on January 7. In addition, on January 7, the European Commission announced the signing of a further agreement with Pfizer/BioNtech for a further 300 million doses, which will then be distributed in proportion to the population of each Member State.
How to handle a 'close contact' of a COVID-19 case?
On the basis of ministerial memos and ordinances, the relevant local health authorities should apply the following measures to close contacts of a COVID-19 case:
Directorate-General for Preventive Healthcare