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FAQ - Covid-19, questions and answers

1.

What is a coronavirus?

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses known to cause diseases ranging from the common cold to more serious diseases such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).

They are positive-stranded RNA viruses with a crown-like appearance under the electron microscope. The subfamily Orthocoronavirinae of the family Coronaviridae is further classified into four coronavirus (CoV) genera: Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Gammacoronavirus. The Betacoronavirus genus is further divided into five subgenera (including the Sarbecovirus)

Coronaviruses were identified in the mid-1960s and are known to infect humans and a variety of animals (including birds and mammals). Epithelial cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract are the primary target cells.

To date, seven coronaviruses have been shown to infect humans:

  • Common human coronaviruses: HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 (Betacoronavirus) and HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63 (Alphacoronavirus); they can cause common colds but also severe lower respiratory tract infections.
  • other human Coronaviruses (Betacoronavirus): SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and 2019-nCoV (now named SARS-CoV-2)
2.

What is a novel coronavirus?

A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain of coronavirus never previously identified in humans. In particular, the virus named SARS-CoV-2 (formerly 2019-nCoV), was never identified before it was reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.

3.

What is SARS-Cov-2?

The virus that is causing the current coronavirus outbreak has been named ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2’ (SARS-CoV-2). This designation was communicated by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), virus taxa (i.e. species, genus, family, etc.). The name was given by a group of experts specially appointed to study the novel coronavirus. According to this pool of scientists, the novel coronavirus is a sister to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs); this is why it has been named SARS-CoV-2.

4.

What is COVID-19?

The disease caused by the novel Coronavirus has been named ‘COVID-19’ (where "CO" stands for corona, "VI" for virus, "D" for disease and "19" indicates the year in which it occurred). This was announced on 11 February 2020 by the Director-General of the WHO, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.

5.

Is the new virus the same as SARS?

No. The novel Coronavirus (now named SARS-CoV-2, formerly labelled 2019-nCoV) belongs to the same family of viruses as the Acute Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) virus, but it is not the same virus.

The novel Coronavirus, which is responsible for the respiratory disease now named COVID-19, is closely related to the SARS-CoV and is genetically classified in the genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus.

6.

Why did the novel coronavirus appear?

The appearance of new viruses that originally only infected animals but then make the jump from animal to humans is a well-known phenomenon (‘spillover’), and this is what seems to have happened with the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, the scientific community is trying to identify the source of the infection.

Source: ISS - National Institute of Health 

7.

Is the source of the coronavirus causing COVID-19 known?

To date, the source of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, is unknown. Available evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 is of animal origin and is not a constructed virus. Most likely the ecological reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 resides in bats. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to a group of genetically related viruses, including SARS-CoV (the coronavirus causing SARS) and a number of other coronaviruses isolated from bat populations.

Source: WHO 


8.

What are the symptoms of Covid-19?

The most common symptoms of Covid-19 are fever, fatigue, and dry cough. Some patients may experience soreness and muscle pain, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, or diarrhoea. These symptoms are generally mild and start gradually. In the most severe cases, the infection may cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death.

Recently, anosmia/hyposmia (loss/diminution of smell), and in some cases ageusia (loss of taste) have been reported as symptoms related to the Covid-19 infection. Data from South Korea, China and Italy show that in some cases patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection developed anosmia/hyposmia in the absence of other symptoms.

9.

How dangerous is the new virus?

Preliminary data from the EU/EEA show that about 20-30% of cases of COVID-19 are hospitalised and 4% develop a severe form of the disease. Hospitalization rates are higher for people over 60 years of age and those with underlying diseases.

10.

How long is the incubation period?

The incubation period is the time between infection and the onset of clinical symptoms of disease. It is currently estimated to range between 2 and 11 days, up to a maximum of 14 days.

11.

Who are the people most at risk of developing a serious type of the disease?

Elderly people and those with pre-existing diseases, such as high blood pressure, heart problems, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, cancer and immunocompromised patients (by congenital or acquired disease, transplant patients or under treatment with immunosuppressive drugs) are more likely to develop severe forms of the disease.

12.

What are the recommendations for people most at risk?

All elderly people, or people suffering from one or more chronic diseases or with congenital or acquired immunosuppression are recommended not to leave their home or residence, unless strictly necessary, and to avoid crowded places, where it is not possible to maintain a safe interpersonal distance of at least one meter.

13.

Can Coronaviruses and the novel Coronavirus be transmitted from person to person?

Yes, some Coronaviruses can be transmitted from person to person, usually after close contact with an infected patient, for example, between family members or in a healthcare centre.

The novel Coronavirus responsible for respiratory disease COVID-19 can also be transmitted from person to person through close contact with a probable or confirmed case.

14.

How is the novel Coronavirus transmitted from person to person?

Current evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 spreads among people directly, indirectly (through contaminated objects or surfaces) through close contact with infected people - through secretions in the mouth and nose (saliva, respiratory secretions, or droplet droplets). When a sick person coughs, sneezes, talks or sings, these secretions are released from their mouth or nose. People who are in close contact (within 1 metre) with an infected person can become infected, if droplets enter their mouth, nose, or eyes.

To avoid contact with these droplets, it is important to stay at least 1 metre away from others, wash your hands frequently and cover your mouth and nose with a handkerchief or bent elbow when sneezing or coughing. When physical distance (standing 1 metre or more away) is not possible, an important measure to protect others is to wear a mask. It is always essential to wash your hands frequently.

15.

How else can the new coronavirus be transmitted?

Sick people can release infected droplets on objects and surfaces (called fomites) when they sneeze, cough or touch surfaces (tables, handles, handrails). By touching these objects or surfaces, other people can become infected by touching their eyes, nose, or mouth with contaminated (unwashed) hands.

Therefore, it is essential to wash your hands properly and regularly, with soap and water or an alcohol-based product and to clean surfaces frequently.

16.

What do we know about the aerosol transmission?

Some medical procedures can produce exceedingly small droplet (called aerosolized droplet nuclei or aerosols), that are able to remain suspended in the air for a long time.

When such medical procedures are performed on COVID-19 positive people in healthcare facilities, these aerosols may contain SARS-CoV-2. Aerosol droplets may potentially be inhaled by other people if they are not wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Therefore, it is essential that all healthcare professionals performing these medical procedures take specific respiratory protection measures, including the use of appropriate personal protective equipment. No visitors should be allowed in areas where such medical procedures are performed.

COVID-19 outbreaks have been reported in some indoor environments, such as restaurants, nightclubs, places of worship and workplaces where people can speak in a loud voice, talk, or sing. In these outbreaks, transmission by aerosols cannot be excluded, especially in closed, crowded and poorly ventilated places where infected people spend long periods of time with others.

Further studies are needed to investigate such outbreaks and assess their importance for virus transmission.

17.

When can infected people transmit the virus?

According to current knowledge, virus transmission mainly occurs from symptomatic people, but it can also occur shortly before the onset of symptoms, in case of proximity with other people for prolonged periods of time. People who never show symptoms can transmit the virus, even if it is not yet clear to what extent this occurs: further studies are needed.

To help break the transmission chain, it is necessary to limit contact with COVID-19 positive people, wash your hands frequently and thoroughly and wear a mask when at least 1 meter of physical distance cannot be guaranteed.

18.

Can the new Coronavirus infection be developed by a case that presents no symptoms (asymptomatic)?

Yes, infected people can transmit the virus, both when they show symptoms and when they are asymptomatic. That is why it is important that all sick people are identified through tests, isolated and, depending on the severity of their illness, receive medical treatment. Confirmed but asymptomatic people must also be isolated, to limit contact with others. These measures break the chain of the transmission of the virus.

That is why it is always important to stay at least 1 metre away from others, cover your mouth and nose with a bent elbow or handkerchief when coughing or sneezing, clean your hands regularly and stay at home in case of symptoms, or if requested by your GP or the prevention department. It is also important to wear a mask when physical distancing and other prevention and control measures cannot be applied.

19.

What is the difference between asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic people: in both cases it does not mean that they are symptom-free?

Yes, both terms refer to people who have no symptoms. The difference is that 'asymptomatic' refers to people who are infected, but never develop symptoms, while 'pre-symptomatic' refers to infected people who have not yet developed symptoms but will develop them later.

This distinction is essential, in order for public health strategies to control transmission. Laboratory data suggest that people may be more infectious when they develop symptoms. Therefore, during investigation and contact tracing, it is recommended that public health professionals identify all individuals who have been or may have been in contact with a confirmed or probable COVID-19 case, focusing on the 48 hours before the onset of symptoms until the case is diagnosed and isolated.

20. Do we need more information to better understand the transmission of the virus?

Yes, COVID-19 is a new disease and more information is available every day, but there are still many aspects to be clarified:

  • the different routes of transmission: through droplets of different sizes, physical contact, fomites, and the role of airborne transmission in the absence of aerosol generating procedures;
  • the concentration of virus needed for transmission;
  • the characteristics of people and situations that facilitate the superdiffusion of the virus, such as those observed in some indoor environments;
  • the percentage of infected people who remain asymptomatic during the period of infection;
  • the percentage of truly asymptomatic people who transmit the virus to others;
  • the specific factors determining asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic transmission;
  • and the proportion of all infections transmitted by asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic individuals.
21.

What is the definition of close contact?

A "close contact" (high risk exposure) of a probable or confirmed case is defined as:

  • A person living in the same household as a COVID-19 case;
  • A person having had direct physical contact with a COVID-19 case (e.g. shaking hands);
  • A person having unprotected direct contact with infectious secretions of a COVID-19 case (e.g. touching used paper tissues with a bare hand);
  • A person having had face-to-face contact with a COVID-19 case within 2 metres and > 15 minutes;
  • A person who was in a closed environment (e.g. classroom, meeting room, hospital waiting room, etc.) with a COVID-19 case without suitable PPE
  • A health care professional or other person providing direct assistance to a COVID-19 case or lab personnel handling samples of a COVID-19 case, who did not use the recommended PPE or used unsuitable PPE
  • A contact in an aircraft sitting within two seats (in any direction) of the COVID-19 case, travel companions or persons providing care, and crew members serving in the section of the aircraft where the index case was seated (if severity of symptoms or movement of the case indicate more extensive exposure, passengers seated in the entire section or all passengers on the aircraft may be considered close contacts).

Healthcare professionals, based on individual risk assessments, may believe that some people, regardless of the duration and setting of the contact, have had a high-risk exposure.

22.

How to manage a close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case?

Under the Ministerial Circulars and Orders, the local health authorities must place any close contacts of a probable or confirmed case under quarantine with active surveillance for 14 days.

23.

Can the new Coronavirus infection be contracted by a case that presents no symptoms (asymptomatic)?

It is known that the virus spreads mainly through respiratory droplets expelled by coughing or other symptoms.

However, some evidence suggests that transmission can also occur from an infected person, who has only mild symptoms.

Some reports have also indicated that people without symptoms can also transmit the virus. This is particularly true in the early stages of the disease, especially two days before symptoms develop. Studies to assess the likelihood of such event are currently underway.

24.

Who is at greater risk of infection?

People who live or have travelled in areas at risk of novel coronavirus infection or people who have been in close contact with a confirmed or probable case of COVID-19. 

The areas at risk of novel coronavirus infection are those where local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is present, as identified by the World Health Organization. The risk level in those areas is higher than in areas where only imported cases are present. 

25.

Can I be infected by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) by touching rails of handles on buses or in the metro or by being close to someone who is coughing? (ISS) 

Since the virus can spread via contaminated surfaces, it is always a good practice in order to prevent respiratory and other infections to wash your hands frequently and thoroughly, after touching potentially contaminated objects and surfaces, and to avoid touching your face, eyes and mouth with unwashed hands. 

Please remember that we are in the midst of the flu season. Therefore, if you experience symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, headache and, especially, breathing difficulties, you should consult your doctor. In any case, it is always a good practice in order to prevent respiratory and other infections to wash your hands frequently and thoroughly, after touching potentially contaminated objects and surfaces, and to avoid touching your face, eyes and mouth with unwashed hands. 

26.

Are health workers at risk from a novel coronavirus?

Yes, they can be, because they come into contact with patients more often than the general population. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that health workers follow appropriate prevention and control measures for infections in general and respiratory infections in particular.

27.

When can a confirmed case of COVID-19 be declared recovered?

A COVID-19 patient can be considered cured after the resolution of symptoms (fever, rhinitis, cough, sore throat, difficulty breathing, pneumonia) and after two negative swab tests for SARS-CoV-2 performed 24 hours apart.

28.

Can the new coronavirus be transmitted by mosquitoes?

To date there is no scientific evidence of transmission through ticks, mosquitoes, or other insects, which can carry other types of viruses (arbovirus), which are responsible for diseases that are completely different from Covid-19, such as dengue and yellow fever.

Moreover, there is currently no data to suggest that other coronaviruses of the same family of SARS-CoV-2 (such as SARS and MERS viruses) can be transmitted by mosquitoes. It is therefore highly unlikely.

29.

How long does the novel Coronavirus survive on surfaces?

Currently available scientific evidence shows that the survival time of the virus on surfaces varies depending on the type of surface considered. The recent report of the Higher Institute of Health  concerning the recommendations on the sanitization of non-healthcare facilities in the current COVID-19 emergency (surfaces, indoor environments and clothing) and the May 22, 2020 memo report the detection time of viral particles on the most common surfaces, varying from several hours (e.g. on paper) to several days (e.g. on plastic and stainless steel).

However, it must be considered that the data available so far, being generated by experimental conditions, must be interpreted with caution, also taking into account that the presence of viral RNA does not necessarily indicate that the virus is vital and potentially infectious.

The use of simple disinfectants can kill the virus by eliminating its ability to infect people, e.g. disinfectants containing alcohol (ethanol) or sodium hypochlorite (bleach).

Remember to clean frequently used items (mobile phone, earphones, microphone) first with soap and water or other neutral detergents and then disinfect them with products containing sodium hypochlorite (bleach) or ethanol (alcohol), following the manufacturer's instructions.

Read the ISS report Interim recommendations on sanitizing non-health care facilities during the current COVID-19 emergency: surfaces, indoor spaces, and clothing.

30.

How does the novel Coronavirus spread?

The new coronavirus is a respiratory virus which spreads primarily through contact with the respiratory droplets of infected persons, generated when, for example, they cough or sneeze or blow their nose. It is therefore important that infected people practice respiratory hygiene measure. For example, sneeze or cough into a flexed elbow, or use a tissue and discard it immediately into a closed bin. It is also very important for people to wash their hands frequently with soap and water or a alcohol-based hand rub.

31. What are the rules for sanitization/hand washing?

The purpose of hand washing is to ensure proper hand cleansing and hygiene through mechanical action.

Common soap is sufficient for hand hygiene. In the absence of water, so-called alcohol-based hand sanitizers can be used.

If soap is used, it is important to rub your hands for at least 60 seconds. If soap is not available, use a hydroalcoholic solution for at least 20-30 seconds.

Commercially available products for hand sanitization in the absence of soap and water (medical and surgical devices and authorised biocides with microbicidal action) should be used when the hands are dry, otherwise they are not effective.

It is important to wash your hands:

Before

  • touching each other's eyes/nose/mouth (e.g. to smoke, use contact lenses, brush teeth, etc.).
  • eating
  • taking medications or administering medications to others

Before and after

  • handling food, especially raw food
  • using toilets,
  • medicating or touching a wound
  • changing a baby's diaper
  • touching a sick person
  • touching an animal

After 

  • attending public places (shops, clinics, stations, gyms, schools, cinemas, bus, office, etc.) and, in general, as soon as you return home
  • handling garbage
  • using money
  • touching other people.

It is also a good practice to cough/sneeze in your elbow crease to avoid contaminating your hands, with which you can subsequently transmit your microorganisms (e.g. by touching your mobile phone, door handle, etc.).

Finally, it is recommended to use disposable tissues to blow your nose, (possibly eco-friendly tissues), and to dispose of them in the waste, washing your hands, immediately after use.

32.

What is the difference between sanitation, disinfection, sanitization, and other cleaning procedure

Sanitization: it is a "series of cleaning and/or disinfection procedures and operations", which includes the maintenance of good air quality, changing the air frequently in all environments.

Disinfection: is a treatment to reduce the microbial load of environments, surfaces and materials and must be carried out using disinfectant products (biocides or medical and surgical devices) authorized by the Ministry of Health. These products must be labelled with the registration/authorisation number.

Hygiene: this is the equivalent of cleaning and is intended to make the environment hygienic, i.e. to clean the environment by eliminating the harmful substances present. Products without an authorisation from the Ministry of Health, which are labelled with indications on their activity, e.g. against germs and bacteria, are not products with a proven disinfectant activity but are simply environmental cleaners (sanitisers).

Cleansing: consists in the removal of dirt and microorganisms, with a subsequent reduction of the microbial load. Cleaning is mandatory before disinfection and sterilization because the dirt is rich in microorganisms that actively multiply in it and can reduce the activity of disinfectants.

Cleaning: cleaning is carried out using environmental cleaning/hygienising products - the two terms are equivalent - which remove dirt by mechanical or physical action.

Sterilization: physical or chemical process that leads to the targeted destruction of every living microbial form, both in vegetative and spore form.

Read more 

33.

Is it safe to receive packages from countries where COVID-19 has been reported?

Yes. The WHO has stated that the likelihood of an infected person contaminating commercial goods is low and the risk of catching the virus from a package that has been exposed to different conditions and temperature is also low. 

34.

Is it necessary to spray the streets with disinfectants (e.g. hypochlorite)?

There is no evidence that walking surfaces are involved in transmission of the virus. Moreover, spraying hypochlorite could increase the amount of harmful substances in the environment. Street cleaning with conventional soaps/detergents is still advised.

35.

Is there a risk of COVID-19 infection from animals?

While available data, in particular genetic sequences, suggest that the SARSCoV-2 virus emerged from an animal source, there is currently not enough scientific evidence to identify precisely either the source or the route of transmission from the original animal reservoir to a putative intermediate host and then to humans. Studies are underway to better understand the susceptibility of different animal species to SARS-CoV-2 and to assess infection dynamics in susceptible animal species.

Source: European Commission 

36.

Is there a risk of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from humans to animals or between animals?

The environment of patients with COVID-19 is likely to be contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 so pets that live with infected people are exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and infection in COVID-19 for pets living in affected households cannot be excluded. The preliminary assessment of this risk of exposure and subsequent infection in households is considered low for cats, ferrets and hamsters, very low for dogs and negligible for birds and reptiles (Shi et al., 20201 ). There is no current scientific evidence of dogs or cats playing a role in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 towards humans. In addition, despite isolated cases of infection reported in dogs and cats, currently there is no scientific evidence to suggest that animals infected by humans are playing a role in the epidemiology of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Outbreaks of COVID-19 in humans are driven by person-to-person. In previous episodes of SARS outbreaks, pets have not acted as animal reservoir or played a role in transmitting the virus through zoonotic transmission.

Source: European Commission 

37.

Can I get infected from my pet?

There is no evidence that pets play a role in the spread of SARS-CoV-2, as it has been proved that interhuman infection is the main route of transmission.

However, since veterinary surveillance and experimental studies suggest that pets are occasionally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, it is important to protect pets living with patients with COVID-19 by limiting their exposure. It is recommended to wash hands frequently with soap and water or using alcoholic solutions before and after contact with pet, their litter or food bowl.

38.

Should I take any special precaution with my pet?

First and foremost there is no justification for any measures to be taken which may in any way compromise the welfare of the animals in your care. Despite there is no current scientific evidence of dogs or cats or any other pet species playing a role in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and that animals infected by humans are not playing a role in the epidemiology of COVID19, a precautionary attitude and behaviour is recommended whenever possible. There are certain protective steps that can be taken:

  • As a precaution, people infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus or suspected of being infected should avoid as much as possible close contact with their pet animals and should maintain good hygiene practices (e.g. isolating from pets, washing hands frequently, avoiding close face contact, wearing a facemask).
  • Under the same precautionary approach, animals belonging to owners suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 should minimise their contact with people or other animals and be kept confined indoors in their households or designated animal isolation places or shelters as much as practical, not jeopardising under any circumstances their welfare and for a duration equal to the lockdown recommendations for humans applicable in the same geographical area.
  • Pet owners should keep their pets on a leash when walking outside so as to be able to keep the “social distance” with other people.

Source: European Commission 

39.

Is there a risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 via pet food or animal feed? What about the packaging?

As for human food, there has been no report of transmission of SARS-CoV2 virus to animals via consumption of pet food. The European Food Safety Authority concluded that “there is no evidence that food is a likely source or route of transmission of the virus” .

Indeed, as for food for human consumption, there is no scientific evidence and it appears very unlikely that you can become infected from handling pet food. The recommendations regarding the handling of pet food packages are the same as for the handling of any other package. This assessment is also valid for feed for farmed animals.

40.

Are any animals or animal products imported from China?

Due to the presence of some contagious animal diseases in China, only a few live animals and unprocessed animal products from China are authorised for import into the European Union.

There is no evidence that any of the animals or animal products authorised for entry into the European Union pose a risk to the health of EU citizens as a result of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in China.

41.

Is it possible to import food products from China?

As with the imports of animals and animal products, due to the animal health situation in China, only a few products of animal origin are authorised for import into the EU from China, on the condition that they meet strict health requirements and have been subjected to controls.

For the same reasons, travellers entering the EU customs territory are not allowed to carry any meat, meat products, milk or dairy products in their luggage.

42.

What should I do when I return from a walk with my dog

When returning from walks, to protect our pet friend, it is advisable to take care of their hygiene, taking special care to wipe their paws, avoiding aggressive and alcohol - based products that could cause any irritations or itching, and preferring to use products without added fragrance (e.g. water and mild soap).

As far as their fur coat is concerned, it is advisable to br ush them and then wipe them with a damp cloth. 

43.

If my pet is sick, where do I ask for assistance?

Veterinary assistance is one of the essential services provided for in the recent legislation. Please contact your vet, who will tell you what steps you need to take to take your pet to a clinic.

44.

Do I need to change my pet’s diet?

It is recommended not to change your pet’s the diet. However, you could slightly decrease its daily intake, considering that during this period outdoor activity is reduced

45.

Is there a vaccine against the novel coronavirus?

No, since this is a new disease, there is currently no vaccine available and it could take up to 12-18 months to develop one.

46.

Am I protected from COVID-19 if I got a flu shot this year?

Influenza and the virus that causes COVID-19 are two different viruses and the seasonal flu vaccine does not protect from COVID-19. However, the flu vaccine is strongly recommended because it helps to avoid confusion with COVID-19 if you develop symptoms, enabling earlier isolation of possible coronavirus cases.

47.

Is Tuberculosis vaccine (TB) protective against COVID-19?

Since at present there is no scientific evidence that TB vaccine can provide protection against the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), this vaccine remains indicated for vulnerable categories of the population exposed to these infections.

48.

Is it necessary to continue with the normal vaccination activities envisaged in the general vaccination schedule?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) it is essential to maintain vaccination appointments, especially for routine vaccinations. During vaccination appointments, it is recommended to observe the preventive measures for COVID-19.

49.

What can I do to protect myself?

Please stay up to date with the latest information on the spread of the pandemic, available on the WHO website and on the Italian Ministry of Health website and take the following personal protection measures:

  • Avoid close contact with infected people. Make sure there is a physical distance of at least 1 metre from yourself and others. If this distance cannot be guaranteed, wear a mask
  • Identify infected people early, so that they can be isolated and treated, and all their close contacts can be quarantined
  • wash your hands often. It is strongly recommended to make sure that hydroalcoholic solutions for washing hands are available in all public places, gyms, supermarkets, pharmacies and other gathering places
  • avoid crowded places, closed rooms with poor ventilation and close proximity with others
  • ensure good ventilation of indoor spaces, including homes and offices
  • avoid hugs and handshakes;
  • respiratory hygiene (sneeze and/or cough in a disposable paper towel and throw it away immediately or wash it after use, then wash your hands well with soap and water or hydroalcoholic solution and dry them thoroughly. avoiding hand contact with any respiratory secretions);
  • avoid communal use of bottles and glasses, in particular during sports activities;
  • do not touch your eyes, nose and mouth with your hands;
  • do not take antiviral drugs and antibiotics, unless prescribed by your doctor;
  • first, clean surfaces with soap and water or regular mild detergents to remove dirt. Then sanitize all surfaces with sodium hypochlorite or alcohol solutions (bleach). Make sure the solutions are diluted properly
  • during any social contact, it is strongly recommended to use a respiratory tract protection, as an additional measure to other individual health and hygiene protection measures
  • it is strongly recommended that health care professionals use surgical masks at all times, during all routine activities in health care facilities.
  • healthcare workers should also use additional personal protective equipment and precautions for the care of COVID-19 patients, as required by ministerial regulations.

If you have a fever, cough or experience any breathing difficulties and you suspect that you have been in close contact with a person with respiratory disease Covid-19:

  • stay at home, do not go to the emergency room or to a doctor's surgery but call your family doctor, paediatrician or the ‘guardia medica’ (out-of-hours primary care service). Alternatively, call the regional telephone information hotline. Call the emergency number 112/118 only if strictly necessary, if your symptoms get worse, or if you experience serious breathing difficulties.
50.

Can the virus be transmitted via food?

Normally, respiratory diseases cannot be passed on through food. However, safe food hygiene practices should be followed, and contact between raw and cooked food should be avoided. 

It is safe to drink tap water, thanks to treatment processes that remove viruses, environmental conditions that compromise virus vitality (temperature, sunlight, high pH levels) and the final disinfection step.

Source: ISS - National Institute of Health 

51.

When should I wear a mask?

As of May 4th 2020, in order to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus, it is mandatory throughout the country to use respiratory protection in closed spaces that are accessible to the public, including means of transport, and in any case on all occasions when the maintenance of a safe distance cannot be guaranteed.

Children under six years of age, as well as people with disabilities that are not compatible with the continuous use of a mask, their carers and people interacting with them, are not subject to such obligation.

In some regions, the mandatory use of masks has been extended to other contexts.

Within our communities, disposable masks or washable masks may be used, even if they are self-made. The masks should be made of multilayer materials providing an appropriate barrier and guarantee comfort and breathability at the same time. The shape and adherence of a mask should ensure proper coverage, from the chin all the way to above the nose.

The use of community masks is considered an addition to other protective measures aimed at reducing contagion (such as physical distancing and constant and accurate hand hygiene), which remain unchanged and an absolute priority.

It is not useful to wear multiple overlapping surgical masks. A sensible use of surgical masks is important to avoid unnecessary waste of valuable resources.

Watch the video 

52.

How should I put on and take off the mask?

Follow these steps:

  • before putting on the mask, wash your hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub
  • cover your mouth and nose with the mask ensuring that it is intact and it fits snugly to your face 
  • avoid touching the mask while using it; if you do, wash your hands 
  • when the mask becomes damp, replace it with a new one 
  • you may reuse the mask only if there are relevant instructions on the packaging, including the number of washes allowed without decreasing the safety of the mask
  • remove the mask by handling the elastic band only, without touching the front of the mask and wash your hands immediately after use

Watch the video 

53.

What are the recommendations for people in solitary confinement?

  • Anyone with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection should stay away from other family members, if possible, in a well-ventilated single room and should not receive visitors.
  • The caregiver should be in good health and should not have any illnesses that put him/her at risk if infected.
  • Family members must stay in other rooms or, if this is not possible, maintain a distance of at least 1 metre from the sick person and sleep in a different bed.
  • Caregivers must wear a surgical mask carefully placed on their face when they are in the same room. If the mask is wet or dirty due to secretions, it should be replaced immediately, and they should thoroughly wash their hands after removing it.
  • Hands should be washed thoroughly with soap and water or a hydroalcoholic solution after every contact with the patient or his/her surroundings, before and after preparing food, before eating, after using the bathroom and whenever they appear dirty.

These are just some of the many recommendations extracted from a document drafted by the Italian Higher Institute of Health . These guidelines are summed up in a 21 points  downloadable poster.

54.

What are the recommendations for family members caring for people in home isolation under suspicion of or confirmed COVID-19?

  • The carer must be in good health, have no diseases that put him/her at risk, wear a surgical mask carefully placed on his/her face when in the same room as the patient
  • Hands should be washed thoroughly with soap and water or a hydroalcoholic solution after every contact with the patient or his/her surroundings, before and after preparing food, before eating, after using the bathroom and whenever hands appear dirty.
  • Crockery, cutlery, towels and sheets must be used exclusively by the sick person. They must be washed often with soap and water at 60/90 °C.
  • Surfaces frequently touched by the sick person must be cleaned and disinfected every day
  • If the sick person gets worse or has breathing difficulties, call 112/118 immediately
55. I have completed my self-isolation period. What must I do to return to work?

After completing the home isolation period, if you developed no symptoms, you may return to work. The days you stayed home are covered by the certificate issued at the beginning of the isolation period. 

Should somebody develop symptoms during the period of fiduciary isolation, the Department of Public Health, which is responsible for the national health surveillance, will carry out a test with the SARS-CoV-2 swab. In the event of a positive outcome, clinical recovery (i.e. complete absence of symptoms) is required, before going back to work. At that point, two consecutive swabs will be performed within 24 hours, to confirm that the patient has completely recovered. If both swabs are negative, the person can go back to work, otherwise the fiduciary isolation period will be resumed.

56.

Is there a treatment for the novel coronavirus?

At present, there is no specific treatment for the disease caused by the new coronavirus.

Treatment remains mainly based on a symptomatic approach, providing supportive therapies (e.g. oxygen therapy, fluid management) to infected people, which can nevertheless be highly effective.

Several clinical trials are underway for the treatment of COVID-19 disease. The Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) provides information on its website about the drugs that are made available to COVID-19 patients.

See the dedicated page on the site: Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA)

57.

Can antibiotics be useful to prevent infection with novel coronavirus?

No, antibiotics do not work against viruses, they only work on bacterial infections.

58.

Can high-blood pressure medications with ACE inhibitors or sartans or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. ibuprofen) worsen COVID-19?

There is no scientific evidence of any correlation between the use of ibuprofen or antihypertensive drugs and worsening of the COVID-19 disease. Therefore, on the basis of current knowledge, there is no recommendation to change your current treatment.

59.

There are psychological support initiatives for people in this time of stress related to the COVID - 19 pandemic

Since April 27th, the psychological support toll-free number 800.833.833, set up by the Ministry of Health and the Civil Protection, is active.

The number, which is active every day from 8AM to midnight, can also be reached from abroad dialling +39.02.20228733. Access to this service is also guaranteed to hearing impaired citizens.

To learn more, go to the page Psychological Support Free-toll Number on the New Coronavirus themed site of the Ministry of Health.


60. Which masks should I use in case of respiratory infection symptoms?
In case of symptoms, it is necessary to use a mask that is certified as a medical device.
61.

Is the mask also mandatory for children?

Children must wear a mask from the age of six years and up. It is particularly important to pay attention to the shape of children’s masks, avoiding those that are too large and uncomfortable for their face.
62. Do I have to take special precautions when using the mask?

Before you put the mask on:

  • wash your hands with soap and water, for at least 40-60 seconds, or perform hand hygiene with an alcoholic solution, for at least 20-30 seconds 
  • wear the mask by touching only the elastic bands or ties, taking care not to touch the inside of the mask
  • position the mask correctly by making the upper underwire adhere to the nose and placing it under the chin.
  • make sure that you are wearing your mask properly (for example, the coloured part of surgical masks goes on the outside).

When you are using your mask

  • When adjusting your mask, always handle it using elastic its bands or ties.
  • If you touch your mask while wearing it, you must repeat the hygiene of your hands
  • Do not put the mask in your pocket and do not place it on furniture or shelves.

When you remove your mask

  •  Always handle your mask using its elastic bands or ties.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water or perform hand hygiene with an alcoholic solution.

In case of reusable masks

  • wash at 60 degrees with regular laundry detergent, or according to the manufacturer's instructions, if available; sometimes manufacturers also indicate the maximum number of washings possible, without reducing the performance of the mask
  • after handling a used mask, always wash or clean your hands.  
63.

What is the difference between the so-called community masks and surgical masks?

Surgical masks are specifically intended for medical use, developed for use in a healthcare environment and certified according to their filtering capacity.

They respond to the characteristics required by UNI EN ISO 14683-2019 and prevent the transmission of the virus.

Community masks, as described in article 16, paragraph 2, of the Decree-Law DL March 17 2020, have the purpose of reducing the circulation of the virus in daily life and are not subject to any specific certifications.

They should not be considered either medical devices or personal protective equipment, but merely a hygienic measure to reduce the spread of SARS-COV-2 virus.

64. Is it possible to wash community masks?

It is possible to wash community masks, if they are made of materials that resist washing at 60 degrees. Commercial community masks are considered disposable or washable, according to the relevant instructions provided on the packaging. These may also include the number of washes allowed without diminishing their performance

65. What are the requirements of community masks?

These masks must:

  • ensure an adequate barrier for nose and mouth
  • be made of multilayer materials, which must not be toxic, allergenic, or flammable and which do not make it difficult to breathe
  • adhere to the face, covering from chin to nose while ensuring comfort.
66. When do I have to wear gloves?

The use of gloves within the community only adds to the other protective measures aimed at reducing contagion, which remain a priority.

However, the use of disposable gloves remains recommended in purchasing activities, particularly for the purchase of food and beverages.

In addition, when using public transport, or in workplaces and construction sites, when it is not possible to keep an interpersonal distance of at least one metre and other organisational solutions are not possible, using masks and other protective equipment (including gloves, goggles, overalls, etc.) that comply with the provisions of the scientific and health authorities is strictly necessary.

67. What precautions do I have to take for the correct use of gloves?

The use of gloves, similarly to the use of masks, may help preventing infections only under certain conditions. Otherwise, such protective devices may become a vehicle of infection themselves.

Gloves are ok if:

  • they are not a substitute for proper hand hygiene, which must be carried out through thorough washing, for 60 seconds
  • you change them every time they get dirty, and dispose of them properly, in undifferentiated waste.
  • In the same way as your hands, they do not come into contact with your mouth, nose, and eyes.
  • they are disposed of after use, for example, at the supermarket
  • they are not reused
68. How do I dispose of masks and gloves after use?
At the moment, the survival time of coronavirus in waste is unknown. As a precaution, therefore, masks and gloves should be disposed of with undifferentiated waste, taking care to always place them in a sealed bag first, to avoid contact with sanitation workers.
69.

How should masks, gloves and other waste be disposed of, if there are positive or quarantined people in the house?

In households where there are family members who have been tested positive, in isolation or compulsory quarantine, separate waste collection must be discontinued.

Any household waste, regardless of its nature (including tissues, toilet/kitchen rolls, disposable sheets, masks and gloves), must be considered as undifferentiated waste and therefore disposed of in the container used for undifferentiated collection (if possible, with foot pedal), taking care to place the waste inside at least two sealed resistant bags (one inside the other) first, to avoid contact with sanitation workers.

On the other hand, in households where there are no positive subjects in isolation or in compulsory quarantine, it is recommended to continue respecting the waste procedures required by the local territory, without interrupting the separate waste collection.

However, as a precautionary measure, any used tissues, masks, and gloves should be disposed of in the undifferentiated waste.


70. In health care, what personal protective equipment (PPE) should be used and who should use it?

The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italian Higher Institute for Health Care) has issued a document concerning the PPE and medical devices recommended for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the workplace (health care workers, cleaners, laboratory technicians, patients with/without symptoms, accompanying persons, ambulance workers, etc.) and recipients of the guidelines.

Read the document

71.

What preventive measures have been introduced at national level for this virus in relation to donors of blood, organs and tissues?

The National Blood Centre and the National Transplant Centre have established specific measures to suspend temporarily acceptance of donors coming from affected areas.

72.

I am a blood donor. What should I do?

Remember that you can only donate blood if you are in good health; even a simple cold or sore throat, without any connection to the Coronavirus, would cause temporary exclusion.

If you think you have been exposed to the risk of coronavirus infection, wait at least three weeks before donating blood.

When you go to give blood, always inform the interviewing doctor of any recent travel, especially if in one of the areas affected by the novel Coronavirus.

Also inform the doctor if you have been diagnosed with the infection or if you have had symptoms associated with those caused by the Coronavirus (fever, cough, breathing difficulties) even when the symptoms have already been resolved, on their own or following treatment. The interviewing doctor will examine you and may decide to disqualify you temporarily from donating blood.

If you have already donated blood, remember to contact the Blood Transfusion Service if you develop symptoms similar to those caused by the Coronavirus.

73.

Are pregnant women more susceptible to infection or at increased risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19?

There are no scientific reports on the susceptibility of pregnant women to the virus. Pregnancy involves changes in the immune system which may increase the risk of viral respiratory infections, including SARS-CoV-2. Pregnant women might also be at higher risk of developing a severe form of viral respiratory infections.

The advice for pregnant women is to take normal preventive actions to reduce the risk of infection, such as washing hands often and avoiding contact with people who are sick.

74.

What are the effects of COVID-19 during pregnancy?

There are no scientific reports about the effects of COVID-19 during pregnancy. In cases of infection during pregnancy with other related coronaviruses [SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV], cases of miscarriage have been observed, while high fevers during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of birth defects.

75.

Can pregnant women with COVID-19 pass the virus to their fetus or new-born?

From the limited data in the literature, no cases of transmission of infection by other coronaviruses (MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV) from mother to child have been reported. Recent data on children born to mothers with COVID-19 indicate that none of the infants tested positive. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in the amniotic fluid.

76.

Do pregnan t women with COVID - 19 need to have a Caesarean section?

In relation to the current limited knowledge and results of the only study carried out in China, where the presence of SARS - CoV - 2 has not been demonstrated in umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid and breast milk, there is no elective indication for caesarean sectioning in women with COVID - 19, therefore the current indications for caesarean sectioning remain valid.

Furthermore, considering that caesarean section is an independent risk factor for matern al mortality, it is appropriate to carefully assess this mode of delivery in pregnant women with COVID - 19.

77.

Can women who test positive for the new coronavirus have contact with their newborn immediately after birth?

Whenever possible, the preferred option is the joint management of mother and newborn to facilitate the interaction and initiation of breastfeeding.

Should the mother be asymptomatic and feel able to manage her newborn independently, mother and newborn can be managed together. In this case, rooming - in for mother and infant is applicable, applying normal precautions for airborne respiratory diseases. If the mother has a frankly symptomatic respiratory infection (fever, cough and respiratory secretions, myalgia, sore throat, asthenia, dyspnoea ), mother and newborn are temporarily separated.

The decision whether or not to separate mother and newborn should be taken for each individual couple, taking into account the information and consent of parents, the logistical situation of the hospital and possibly also the local epidemiological situation regarding the spread of SARS - CoV - 2.

78.

Can women who tested positive for the new coronavirus breastfeed their baby?

If the mother is asymptomatic, she can breastfeed, taking all possible precautions to avoid transmitting the virus to her baby, washing her hands and wearing a surgical mask while breastfeeding.

If breast milk squeezed with manual or electric breast pump is used, the mother should wash her hands and follow the recommendations for proper cle aning of the instruments after each use. If possible, consider using donated human milk.

If the mother has a frankly symptomatic respiratory infection (fever, cough and respiratory secretions, myalgia, sore throat, asthenia, dyspnoea), mother and newborn s hould be transiently separated. In this case, the automatic use of breastmilk substitutes should be avoided, by implementing the pumping of breastmilk or the use of donated human milk. In cases of severe maternal infection, breastmilk pumping may not be ca rried out, according to the general condition of the mother. The compatibility of breastfeeding with drugs that may be administered to the woman with COVID - 19 should be assessed on a case - by - case basis. The use of positive SARS - CoV - 2 mother's pumped breas t milk for the newborn in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit follows specifics protocols.

79.

What containment measures are planned in Italy?

The DPCM 7 August 2020 has extended until 7 September the prevention-and-containment measures for co-existence with the coronavirus.
 
Learn more 
80. Are citizens allowed to move around the country?

From  June 3, 2020, travel between regions is permitted.

Interregional travel can only be limited by measures taken in relation to specific areas of the national territory, in accordance with the principles of adequacy and proportionality to the epidemiological risk present in these areas.

For further information, it is advisable to contact the regional emergency COVID-19 toll free number  for the specific Region of interest, also regarding the possible need, in case of home return, to carry out a quarantine or fiduciary isolation.

81. What is recommended to all Italian citizens?

General recommendations

  • People with a respiratory infection characterized by fever (over 37.5° C) should stay at home and contact their doctor.
  • Persons subject to quarantine by order of the health authority are prohibited from moving from their home or residence
  • Gatherings of people in public places or places open to the public is still forbidden. It is still mandatory to respect the recommended social distance of at least 1 metre between one person and another.
  • Thorough hand, personal and environmental hygiene is recommended.

For more detailed information, please refer to the annexes to the Ministerial Decree.

It is also advised that all citizens respect simple preventive recommendations.

82.

Which activies and services are open?

From June 12

  • Sports events and competitions behind closed doors or outdoors without the presence of the public are resumed, in compliance with the safety protocols issued by the relevant sports federations, to prevent any possibility of contagion.

From June 15

  • Summer centres for children are open, also for children aged 0-3 years.
  • Theatres, concert halls, cinemas, and other locations, indoors and outdoors, resume performances open to the public, with some cautions/precautions. All activities that take place in dance halls, discotheques, and similar places, both outdoors and indoors, remain suspended.
  • Trade fairs and congresses will be suspended until  July 14, 2020, while professional training courses may be held live, with people attending.
  • Activities of amusement arcades, betting rooms, bingo halls, as well as the activities of wellness centres, spas, cultural and social centres are allowed, upon condition that Regions and Autonomous Provinces have previously ascertained the compatibility of these activities with the trend of the local epidemiological curve.
  • With regard to journeys to and from abroad, the maximum period of stay without obligation of home quarantine has been increased to 120 hours (5 days), for those who enter the national territory for work reasons, as well as for the personnel of companies or entities having their registered or secondary office in Italy, who are going abroad for proven reasons.

From June 25

  • Contact sports are also allowed, in the Regions and Autonomous Provinces which, in agreement with the Ministry of Health and the relevant sports Government Authority, have previously ascertained the compatibility of the above activities with the trend of the epidemiological situation in their respective territories.
83.

What is Immuni?

Immuni is an app that helps us fight epidemics—starting with COVID-19:

  • the app aims to notify users at risk of carrying the virus as early as possible—even when they are asymptomatic
  • these users can then self-isolate to avoid infecting others. This minimises the spread of the virus, while speeding up a return to normal life for most people
  • by being alerted early, these users can also contact their general practitioner promptly and lower the risk of serious consequences.

All the relevant information about the functioning of the system is available on the:

Support is available from a toll-free number, 800 91 24 91, from 8am to 20pm.

84.

Who should I contact?

If you have flu symptoms or think you might be at risk of infection, stay at home, do not go to the emergency room or the doctor's surgery but call your family doctor, paediatrician or the ‘guardia medica’ (out-of-hours primary care service). Alternatively, call the regional information hotline. 

Find out more:

85.

Where can I find more information about the novel Coronavirus?

The Ministry of Health has set up dedicated website: www.salute.gov.it/nuovocoronavirus 

The Regions have activated local helpsline to handle the many requests for information and advice.

Find out more on Ministry's website:

You can find specific information for schools, universities and art and music colleges in the dedicated page of the Ministry of University and Research and the Ministry of Education. 

Updates on the evolution of the outbreak are released daily by the Civil Protection and published in the dedicated pages Situation in Italy  and Situation in the world of the Ministry's website.

Go to the Civil Protection website

If you are planning to travel abroad, you will find useful information on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ travel advice website Viaggiare sicuri.

More information is available on the Epicentro website of the National Institute of Health (ISS).

86.

What is recommended to travellers?

As of June 3, the rules are different, depending on the country of origin or destination.

Read the pages:

Info

For further information please refer to:

87.

When entry into Italy is not allowed

Entry in our country will not be allowed  for the following reasons:

  • Arrivals from/at risk countries
    From 9 to 31 July it is forbidden to enter Italy to anyone who, in the previous 14 days, has stayed or transited through one of the following countries: Armenia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bosnia Herzegovina, Chile, Kosovo, Kuwait, North Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Oman, Panama, Peru, Dominican Republic, Serbia. 
    The ban does not apply to Italian citizens, EU citizens, citizens of countries included in the Schengen Agreement, citizens of the United Kingdom, citizens of Andorra, citizens of the Principality of Monaco, citizens of the Republic of San Marino or citizens of the Vatican City State and their close family members (descendants and relatives in the ascending line living together, spouse, civil partner, stable partner), provided that they have been resident in Italy since before 9 July 2020. 
  • positive diagnosis for COVID-19 in the 14 days before travelling;
  • showing even a single symptom of COVID-19 in the 8 days before travelling:
    • Fever ≥ 37,5°C and chills
    • Dry cough
    • Breathing difficulties
    • Loss of taste or smell
    • Nasal congestion
    • Sore throat
    • Diarrhea (mostly in children)
  • close contact (e.g. less than 2 meters for more than 15 minutes) with a confirmed positive case of COVID-19 in the 14 days before travelling;
  • visiting, in the 14 days before arriving in Italy, States or territories other than: 
    • Member States of the European Union (EU): besides Italy Member States of EU are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Hungary;
    • non-EU States of the Schengen Agreement: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland;
    • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland;
    • Andorra, Principality of Monaco;
    • Republic of San Marino and State of the Vatican City;
    • Algeria, Australia, Canada, Georgia, Japan, Montenegro, Morocco, New Zealand, Rwanda, Serbia, South Korea, Thailand, Tunisia, Uruguay.

See more

88. What measures are planned for entry in Italy?

Until June 2, whoever intends to enter Italy by air, sea, lake, rail or land transport or by private means, is required, for the purpose of access to the service, to deliver to the carrier a detailed and clear certification upon boarding, in order to allow verification by carriers or shipowners, to:

  • reasons for travelling
  • full address of the house or dwelling in Italy where the period of health surveillance and  fiduciary isolation will be carried out
  • any private means of transport that will be employed to travel
  • Landline or mobile telephone number where communications can be received during the entire period of health surveillance and fiduciary isolation.

All travellers entering Italy, even if asymptomatic, are obliged to immediately notify the Prevention Department of the competent territorial health service and are subject to health surveillance and fiduciary isolation for a period of fourteen days at the home or residence stated at the time of boarding.

In the event of the onset of COVID-19 symptoms, travellers are obliged to report this situation promptly to the Health Authority via the dedicated telephone numbers.

Obligations for carriers and shipowners

Carriers and shipowners shall obtain and verify the documentation required from travellers before boarding, taking care to take temperature measurements of individual passengers and forbidding boarding in case of fever, as well as because of incomplete documentation.

Carriers and shipowners are also required to adopt any necessary measures to ensure at all times an interpersonal distance of at least one meter between passengers during the journey, and to promote the use of individual means of protection by the crew and passengers, providing clear directions concerning  any situations in which such protections may be temporarily removed. Air carriers shall ensure that all passengers without protection are provided with personal protective equipment upon boarding.

The above provisions shall not apply to:

  • transport crew
  • travelling personnel belonging to companies with registered offices in Italy
  • health personnel entering Italy to practice activities connected to their professional health qualifications, including temporary practice
  • cross-border workers entering and leaving the national territory for proven reasons of work and the consequent return to their residence, dwelling or homestay.

Learn more:

89.

Are foreign nationals required to observe the same travel limitations as Italian citizens?

Yes, the restrictions to travel and movement apply to all persons in or entering/exiting Italy, regardless of their nationality.

90.

What are the WHO’s recommendations for countries?

The WHO encourages all countries to strengthen preventive measures, active surveillance, early detection of cases, their isolation following appropriate management and containment procedures, and accurate contact tracing to prevent further spread.

Countries are asked to continue to improve their preparedness for health emergencies in line with International Health Regulations (2005) and to share information on cases and on the measures they implement.

91.

Where are the COVID-19 cases happening?

On March 11th, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the international outbreak of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection can be considered a pandemic.

The epidemiological situation is constantly evolving. Every day the WHO publishes the epidemiological update of the disease on the page Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports.

Learn more about the New Coronavirus on the following website pages:

92.

Can I get a prescription from my doctor by email or cell phone message?

Yes. By Order of 19 March 2020, you can now get the ‘Electronic Prescription Number’ from your doctor without having to pick up a paper prescription. This is a further measure to reduce the movement of people and stop the spread of the novel coronavirus infection.

Your doctor may:

  • send you the prescription by certified e-mail (PEC) or ordinary e-mail;
  • give you the Electronic Prescription Number by telephone, text message or mobile messaging app

After receiving the Electronic Prescription Number and the tax identification number on your health card, the pharmacist will supply you with the medication.

93.

With the introduction of national restrictive measures, have the activities of anti-violence centres for women been suspended?

No, the anti-violence centres remain open and accessible without restrictions.

Women who are victims of violence and stalking can:

  • ask the Police for help
  • call the toll-free number 1522, active 24/7
  • Use the App1522 for smartphones
  • use the YouPol App to send real time messages to Police operators
  • go to the Emergency Room to request immediate urgent medical care. Social and health workers in the Emergency Room will also be able to advise and direct you towards a path leading you out of violence
  • go to the chemist, in case you cannot immediately reach an Anti-Violence Centre or Emergency Room
  • contact the AIDS and STI helpline 800 861061 if you have been sexually assaulted. The helpline is active Monday to Friday, from 1pm to 6pm, or go the website www.uniticontrolaids.it
  • with no hesitation or further delay, call 112 if:
    • if you have suffered a physical assault or threat of physical assault
    • if you have suffered psychological violence
    • if you are running away with your children (this way you will avoid a child abduction charge).
    • if the abuser has weapons.

Download the infographics.

94.

I Am deaf, where can I ask for information?

You can write an email to 1500coronavirus@sanita.it. You will be answered by doctors ready to give you the explanations and help you need.

95.

Where can I find information on measures for citizens with disabilities?

The Presidency of the Council of Ministers and the Ministry of Health publish all updates regarding the new Coronavirus on the website: www.salute.gov.it/nuovocoronavirus

The Office for Policies in Favour of Citizens with Disabilities publishes specific updates relating to regulations applying to citizens with disabilities on the following website:

New Coronavirus: Frequently Asked Questions for Citizens with Disabilities

In addition to answers to the most frequently asked questions about the measures taken by the Government for people with disabilities and their families, the website also contains the Ministry of Health's vademecum in an accessible format.

The announcements of the Civil Protection Department are available, also in LIS (Italian Sign Language) version, on the YouTube Department channel.

Extracts of the announcements are available, in writing, on the Department website.  

96.

I would like to make a donation to give my contribution during this national emergency, how can I donate?

The Civil Protection website has opened a bank account dedicated to the New Coronavirus emergency.

You will find the relevant information on the page: Coronavirus Emergency: the current account to make your donation is now active

You may also make a donation to the financial support fund dedicated to the families of deceased health care workers because of the Covid-19 emergency. This fund has been set up by the Civil Protection. Donations can be made by bank transfer, both from Italy and abroad.

Read more:

For further information:

Covid-19 Donation page 

97.

What monitoring device has been introduced for this virus nationwide?

For the management of Phase 2, a specific monitoring system on epidemiological data and response capacity of regional health services has been activated, introduced with the decree of the Ministry of Health of April 30, 2020. The monitoring is developed by a “control booth” consisting of the Ministry of Health, the Higher Institute of Health and the Regions.

In Italy, specific surveillance for this virus is also active at national level since the beginning of the epidemic.

The situation is constantly monitored by the Ministry, which is in permanent contact with the WHO, the ECDC, the European Commission and promptly publishes any new updates on the portal www.salute.gov.it/nuovocoronavirus.

In view of the WHO's declaration of an "International Public Health Emergency", the Council of Ministers declared a state of emergency on  January 31, 2020, because of the health risk associated with Coronavirus infection.

98.

What do the R0 and Rt values indicate?

The R0 value (reads R with zero), i.e. the "basic reproduction number", indicates the average number of infections directly caused by each infected individual, at the beginning of the epidemic and in the absence of containment measures. If R0 is 2 it means that on average each infected person will infect two people, if it is 3 it will infect 3, each of which will infect the same number of people.
The higher the R0 value, the higher the risk of spreading the virus.
If R0 is less than 1 (i.e. each infected person will infect less than one), it means that the infection will tend to die out naturally, because the number of infected people will gradually decrease.

Rt (reads R with t) is the expression of the same index at a given time of the epidemic, depending on the containment measures undertaken.
The closer Rt is to zero, the faster the infection is eliminated in the population.
Rt makes it possible to measure the effectiveness of any prevention and restriction measures adopted to limit and contrast the spread of the disease.

99.

What does it mean that those who have been in contact with SARS-CoV-2 positive people in the previous days are not allowed to attend a religious service?

"Contact" is to be understood as "close contact" with a probable or confirmed case, as defined by the Circular of the Ministry of Health of March 9, 2020, namely:

  • a person living in the same house as a COVID-19 case
  • a person who has had direct physical contact with a COVID-19 case (e.g. handshake)
  • a person who has had unprotected direct contact with the secretions of a case of COVID-19 (e.g. touching used paper tissues with bare hands)
  • a person who has had direct (face-to-face) contact with a case of COVID-19, at less than 2 metres and lasting longer than 15 minutes
  • a person who has been in an enclosed environment (e.g. classroom, meeting room, hospital waiting room) with a case of COVID-19 in the absence of suitable PPE
  • a health care professional or other person providing direct assistance to a COVID19 case or laboratory personnel handling samples of a COVID-19 case, without using the recommended PPE or having used unsuitable PPE
  • a person who has travelled seated on an aircraft in the two adjacent seats, in any direction, of a COVID-19 case, as well as his or her travelling companions or caregivers and crew members sitting in the section of the aircraft where the index case was seated 
100.

I am a health care worker working in a COVID-19 department. Can I attend religious services?

Yes, access to a place of worship is permitted, as long as appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) has always been used during the healthcare activity provided.

101.

What is meant by quarantine, active surveillance, and fiduciary isolation? What are the differences?


Quarantine is a period of isolation and observation, of different lengths of time, that is required for people who may carry germs that are responsible for infectious diseases.
The advised time for quarantine may vary, according to the different infectious diseases and  in relation to the incubation period identified for that particular infectious disease.
For the new Coronavirus, the quarantine time has been set to fourteen days.
Quarantine is used to keep those who may have been exposed to an infectious agent, such as SARS-CoV-2, away from others. Quarantine helps prevent the spread of disease by potentially infected people before they know they are sick.
People in quarantine must stay at home, monitor their health conditions, and follow the health and hygiene instructions provided by a public healthcare professional and required by law.

Fiduciary isolation is used to separate people with a confirmed contagious disease from those who are not infected.
People who are in isolation must stay at home, separate from the other persons living in the same household (keeping to their own room and using, if available, a separate bathroom), monitor their state of health and follow the hygienic-sanitary indications provided by a public healthcare professional, according to the regulations in force.

Active surveillance is a measure that involves a public healthcare professional, who contacts the person under surveillance on a daily basis, in order to obtain information on their health conditions.

102.

Do children have an increased risk of infection?

Currently, there is no evidence that children are more susceptible to new coronavirus infection. According to a recent study carried out in China, the majority of the confirmed cases of COVID-19 occurred in adults.

However, as with other respiratory diseases, some populations of children may be at greater risk of serious infection, such as children with underlying medical conditions.

Therefore, children too should follow the recommended prevention measures. In particular they should wash their hands frequently with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub and avoid contact with sick people.

103.

What can parents do to protect their children from infection?

You may encourage your children to help stop the spread of COVID - 19 by teaching them the rules of hygiene and infection prevention:

  • wash hands often with soap and water or alcohol - based hand sanitizer
  • avoid contact with sick people (fever, cough, sneezing)
  • daily cleaning and disinfecting of frequently used surfaces in common areas of th e house (e.g. tables, chairs with hard backrest, door handles, light switches, remote controls, desks, bathrooms, sinks)
  • washing everyday objects, including washable soft toys, according to the manufacturer's instructions. Use the highest temperature all owed, and dry completely.

CDC source

104.

What can parents do to promote physical activity?

During this emergency phase, characterized by extended time to spend at home, it is particularly important to offer children some activities and movement games. Physical exercise, intended as a game of movement, has a priority role for health in the develo pmental age and, in addition to being fun, it helps to improve physical health conditions and promote psychological well - being, functional to achieving a healthy growth. At this time, movement games, more or less structured, to be played together at home, can therefore be very useful to deal with this particular situation with in a more relaxed way: such activities can in fact help children and young people to elaborate emotions and experiences that are sometimes difficult to express, as in playtime childr en have an opportunity to express their emotions, moods and experiences, both pleasant and unpleasant.

To promote physical activity parents may:

  • lead by example. If parents are active, children will be active too 
  • choose activities appropriate to age and development
  • set up safe places to play
  • avoid the use of televisions, tablets and mobile phones for children up to 4 years of age. Limit the use of devices for children and teenagers to certain hours of the day and to a maximum of 2 hours per day, in addition to the time required for the educational activity.

Please refer to the website of the Italian Higher Institute for health, where you will find more information for the different age groups:

Source ISS

Fonte:

Directorate-General for Preventive Healthcare


Data di ultimo aggiornamento: 5 agosto 2020


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